Information on childhood disorders. Read more about their causes, symptoms, treatment, and what you can do as a caregiver at White Swan Foundation. Childhood disorders, often labeled as developmental disorders or learning disorders, most often occur and are diagnosed when the child is of school-age. Journal of Childhood & Developmental Disorders is an open access, peer- reviewed journal that publishes articles on all aspects of developmental disorders.
Childhood Disorder A
In this simple example, the parents are taught to modify the child's environment to make it less likely that the child will display problematic feeding behavior in the future. Other behavior therapy techniques such as systematic desensitization can be used to help older children who demonstrate a food aversion. In systematic desensitization, therapists pair an avoided, anxiety-provoking object in this case, food with a relaxation behavior. The goal is to increase the child's ability to remain relaxed in the presence of the food that he or she would otherwise avoid.
The procedure starts with a therapist teaching children relaxation skills such as meditation, deep breathing, and visualization of calming scenes. Separately, the therapist and the children collaboratively construct a list of anxiety-provoking foods and food- related behavior, and arrange that list in order of the aversiveness distress or disgust of each food or behavior described.
For example, a child who hates milk might have "holding a cup of milk" lower on her hierarchy because this is less disgusting than "tasting a dropperful of milk" more disgusting or "drinking 3 ounces of milk" most disgusting. Children who have become good at relaxing and have completed the disgust hierarchy are taught to pair their relaxation practice with each of the food behaviors listed in their hierarchy starting with the least disgusting item.
Though the food behavior would normally provoke disgust, the relaxation practice makes it easier for the child to tolerate. The child is instructed to maintain the relaxed state while continuing to experience the food-related situation. Eventually, the child will learn to become more tolerant of the food-related situation or behavior, through a naturally occurring process known as habituation. As each level of the hierarchy becomes tolerable, the next level of the hierarchy is introduced, until all the items on the hierarchy are tolerable.
Eventually, the child should be able to consume targeted foods with little or no disgust reaction. Parent education is an important part of behavior therapy for feeding disorders. Parents are taught to recognize their child's hunger and satiety cues, and how to create a positive, pleasant feeding environment for their child.
Changing the texture of foods, the timing of feedings, the position of the person who is feeding if the child is an infant , or the type of utensil used to do the feeding can all prove helpful in modifying the child's problematic behavior.
As is the case with many child behavior disorders, feeding disorders can be, in part, a reaction to problems occurring within the home such as marital difficulties, abuse or neglect, mental illness or lack of access to resources brought on by economic hardship.
As therapists assess and treat child disorders, they will also be looking for evidence of other problems, such as the above, that might benefit from assistance. To the extent that such problems are identified, the therapists will either offer to treat such problems themselves, or more likely will refer parents to other professionals who are better prepared to treat such problems.
By helping parents to solve their own difficulties, therapists help parents to free up their attention and energy for addressing the child's needs.
For those seeking addiction treatment for themselves or a loved one, the MentalHelp. Our helpline is offered at no cost to you and with no obligation to enter into treatment. With that in mind, would you like to learn about some of the best options for treatment in the country? Diagnosis of Feeding Disorder A thorough medical examination will help rule out any medical causes of the feeding problem.
Treatment of Feeding Disorder Optimal treatment of Feeding Disorders often requires coordination between multiple professionals, including a dietitian who can consult on nutrition and diet issues, a behavioral psychologist who can design and implement a behavior modification program, and a physician who can diagnose and treat medical problems that might contribute to the feeding disorder.
Wait, did you know that All young children can be naughty, defiant and impulsive from time to time, which is perfectly normal. However, some children have extremely difficult and challenging behaviours that are outside the norm for their age. These three behavioural disorders share some common symptoms, so diagnosis can be difficult and time consuming. A child or adolescent may have two disorders at the same time. Other exacerbating factors can include emotional problems, mood disorders, family difficulties and substance abuse.
Oppositional defiant disorder Around one in ten children under the age of 12 years are thought to have oppositional defiant disorder ODD , with boys outnumbering girls by two to one. Some of the typical behaviours of a child with ODD include: Easily angered, annoyed or irritated Frequent temper tantrums Argues frequently with adults, particularly the most familiar adults in their lives, such as parents Refuses to obey rules Seems to deliberately try to annoy or aggravate others Low self-esteem Low frustration threshold Seeks to blame others for any misfortunes or misdeeds.
Around five per cent of 10 year olds are thought to have CD, with boys outnumbering girls by four to one. Some of the typical behaviours of a child with CD may include: Frequent refusal to obey parents or other authority figures Repeated truancy Tendency to use drugs, including cigarettes and alcohol, at a very early age Lack of empathy for others Being aggressive to animals and other people or showing sadistic behaviours including bullying and physical or sexual abuse Keenness to start physical fights Using weapons in physical fights Frequent lying Criminal behaviour such as stealing, deliberately lighting fires, breaking into houses and vandalism A tendency to run away from home Suicidal tendencies — although these are more rare.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Around two to five per cent of children are thought to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , with boys outnumbering girls by three to one. The characteristics of ADHD can include: Inattention — difficulty concentrating, forgetting instructions, moving from one task to another without completing anything. Overactivity — constant restlessness and fidgeting. Gender — boys are much more likely than girls to suffer from behavioural disorders.
It is unclear if the cause is genetic or linked to socialisation experiences. Temperament — children who are difficult to manage, temperamental or aggressive from an early age are more likely to develop behavioural disorders later in life. Family life — behavioural disorders are more likely in dysfunctional families. For example, a child is at increased risk in families where domestic violence, poverty, poor parenting skills or substance abuse are a problem.
Learning difficulties —problems with reading and writing are often associated with behaviour problems. Intellectual disabilities — children with intellectual disabilities are twice as likely to have behavioural disorders.
Brain development — studies have shown that areas of the brain that control attention appear to be less active in children with ADHD. For example, a child who exhibits the delinquent behaviours of CD may also have ADHD, anxiety, depression, and a difficult home life. Diagnosis methods may include: Diagnosis by a specialist service, which may include a paediatrician, psychologist or child psychiatrist In-depth interviews with the parents, child and teachers Behaviour check lists or standardised questionnaires.
Treatment of behavioural disorders in children Untreated children with behavioural disorders may grow up to be dysfunctional adults. Generally, the earlier the intervention, the better the outcome is likely to be.
A large study in the United States, conducted for the National Institute of Mental Health and the Office of School Education Programs, showed that carefully designed medication management and behavioural treatment for ADHD improved all measures of behaviour in school and at home.
Treatment is usually multifaceted and depends on the particular disorder and factors contributing to it, but may include: Parental education — for example, teaching parents how to communicate with and manage their children.
Family therapy — the entire family is helped to improve communication and problem-solving skills. Cognitive behavioural therapy — to help the child to control their thoughts and behaviour. Social training — the child is taught important social skills, such as how to have a conversation or play cooperatively with others. Anger management — the child is taught how to recognise the signs of their growing frustration and given a range of coping skills designed to defuse their anger and aggressive behaviour.
Relaxation techniques and stress management skills are also taught. Support for associated problems — for example, a child with a learning difficulty will benefit from professional support. Encouragement — many children with behavioural disorders experience repeated failures at school and in their interactions with others.
Encouraging the child to excel in their particular talents such as sport can help to build self-esteem. Medication — to help control impulsive behaviours. References Oppositional defiant disorder — symptoms , MentalHelp. Oppositional defiant disorder — treatment , MentalHelp. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details. Excellent Good Average Fair Poor. Next Submit Now Cancel. Please note that we cannot answer personal medical queries.
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Children basics Growth and development Behaviour and learning Healthy eating Keeping active Managing weight Care and wellbeing Identity and relationships Health conditions and complaints Safety Grief and trauma Children basics Childhood immunisation Being immunised from an early age helps protect your child against serious childhood infections Children and health services There is a range of subsidised and free health services, including services for mental health and dental health, available for children in Victoria Children — keeping them active A young child is naturally active, so build upon their inclinations to use their body Eating tips for school children Snacks are an important part of a healthy diet for active children, so offer nutritious as well as high energy snacks Growth charts for children Babies and young children do not usually grow in a perfectly smooth way, but instead grow in 'bursts' Immunisation — deciding which vaccines you need Everyone's immunisation needs are different and are influence by your health, lifestyle, age and occupation Parenting services Parenting is one of the most important tasks we undertake but it doesn't always come naturally Growth and development Child development 7 - three to four years Your child is starting to understand social skills like sharing and being kind, but they can only practise these skills for a short time while feeling safe and happy Children's feet and shoes A child learning to walk receives important sensory information from the soles of their feet, and shoes can make walking more difficult Dyslexia Dyslexia is a type of specific learning difficulty SLD in which the person has difficulties with language and words Growing pains Growing pains may cause a lot of pain but they are harmless and can respond to simple treatments Growth and development - primary school children Always see your doctor if you are concerned about your child's growth or weight Growth hormone Some athletes and bodybuilders wrongly believe that taking synthetic growth hormone will help build up their muscles Immunisation history statements for children By law, parents or guardians must provide an Immunisation History Statement when enrolling children in any childcare service, kindergarten or primary school in Victoria Left-handedness If your child is naturally left-handed, don't try to force them to use their right hand Puberty Adjusting to the many changes that happen around puberty can be difficult for both parents and young people Teeth development in children Teething symptoms are common in children and can be managed without medications Behaviour and learning 10 tips for managing sibling rivalry Teach your children to sort out minor differences themselves Anxiety and fear in children You can help your child overcome anxiety by taking their fears seriously and encouraging them to talk about their feelings Bullying Parents can help with bullying by supporting their child and involving the authorities to find solutions Children and literacy Your child is literate if they know how to speak, read and write their language with confidence Children and shyness If your child's shyness is especially debilitating, you may like to consider professional help from a counsellor or psychologist Children and sibling rivalry Sibling rivalry is a common problem, particularly among children who are the same sex and close together in age Conduct disorder Children with untreated conduct disorder are at increased risk of problems including substance use, personality disorders and mental illnesses Cyberbullying online bullying Cyberbullying or online bullying happens when technology is used to bully someone Discipline and children Disciplining your child means teaching them responsible behaviour and self-control Expressive language disorder Expressive language disorder means that a child has difficulty with verbal, written or other information Oppositional defiant disorder ODD Oppositional defiant disorder is a childhood behavioural problem characterised by constant disobedience and hostility Peer pressure Peer groups can be a very positive influence on your teenager's life Receptive language disorder Receptive language disorder means the child has difficulties with understanding what is said to them Sleep - children and nightmares Your child may have only a few scary dreams a year, or be troubled by nightmares much more often Young children and communication Children thrive with words of encouragement and praise Healthy eating Body image and diets Some people diet because they have a poor body image, not because they want to be a healthy weight Breakfast Children who skip breakfast may lack sufficient vitamins and minerals including iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin B Childcare and healthy eating Childcare centres should provide healthy meals for your children Children's diet - fruit and vegetables If you eat and enjoy fruit and vegetables every day, your child may eventually follow your lead Eating tips for preschoolers Children are able to decide how much food they need for activity and growth if allowed to eat according to their appetite Food for sport - tucker talk tips Carbohydrate is the most important nutrient for athletes Healthy eating — school lunches Simple ways to make your child's school lunch healthier Healthy eating tips A good balance between exercise and food intake is important to maintain a healthy body weight Lunch boxes - healthy ideas Healthy foods that are great for school lunch boxes Lunch boxes - healthy shopping ideas video Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham takes us shopping for the right foods to include in your childs lunchbox Lunch boxes - how to make them healthy video Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham shares three healthy and delicious lunchbox examples for the kids and provides some great food preparation tips to save you time throughout Lunch boxes - menu planner By planning ahead, you can make sure that your child's lunch box has each of the six key elements of a healthy lunchbox Lunch box tips Encourage children to help choose and prepare their own healthy snack or lunch Soft drinks, juice and sweet drinks - children Encourage children to drink and enjoy water.
Sticking to New Year's resolutions New Year's resolutions and how to stick to them Vegetarian diets and children Children can eat a vegetarian diet and stay healthy as long as their extra nutritional needs are met Keeping active Children — keeping them active A young child is naturally active, so build upon their inclinations to use their body Gardening for children Children can learn new skills, have fun and develop self-confidence when they grow their own plants Healthy active Koori kids - tucker talk tips Good nutrition and physical exercise help to keep Koori kids healthy and avoid diseases when they get older Parent's guide for active girls Physical activity is an important part of health and wellbeing, and girls should remain active as they grow up Sport and children Make sure that some family outings offer opportunities for physical activity, such as playing sport together Obesity in children - causes Once children are overweight, it takes a lot of effort for them to return to a healthy weight Obesity in children - management If your child is overweight, you can help by making healthier lifestyle choices for yourself Overweight children - healthy lifestyle tips You can help your child to develop healthy patterns for life and avoid obesity Childhood immunisation Being immunised from an early age helps protect your child against serious childhood infections Child safety in the car Taking care to restrain children correctly while travelling in a car is the best way to prevent injuries Dental checks for young children Children should have an oral health check by the time they turn two Immunisation in secondary schools Some immunisations are recommended for all Australian teenagers Pain management acute - children If you think your child is in pain, always see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment Identity and relationships 10 tips for managing sibling rivalry Teach your children to sort out minor differences themselves Body image and diets Some people diet because they have a poor body image, not because they want to be a healthy weight Body image and young people - staying positive video The pressure on young girls and boys to be physically perfect is creating an epidemic of children and teenagers with low self-esteem and negative body image.
Body image — tips for parents Give your child opportunities to appreciate their body for what it can do, rather than what it looks like Family violence and children Children exposed to domestic violence are more likely to experience emotional and behavioural problems Health conditions and complaints Asthma explained Asthma cannot be cured, but with good management people with asthma can lead normal, active lives Asthma in childhood - triggers video Parents and children talk about some of the factors that can cause a child's asthma to flare up Asthma in children Understanding asthma triggers for your child can help to reduce the risk of an asthma attack Back pain in children Children with back pain may grow into adults with chronic bad backs, so it is important to encourage sensible back care Bedwetting Bedwetting is a problem for many children and punishing them for it will only add to their distress Children and vomiting Mild vomiting is normal in most babies and improves over time Constipation and children A healthy diet, plenty of fluids, exercise and regular toilet habits can help relieve constipation in children Diabetes - issues for children and teenagers Many parents worry when their child with diabetes starts or returns to school Fever - children Fever is a way in which the body fights infection.
Gastroenteritis in children Gastroenteritis or Gastro can be dangerous for very young babies. Head lice nits No product can prevent head lice, but regular checks can help prevent the spread Pinworms Despite the unsavoury reputation, a pinworm infection worms is relatively harmless and easily treated Safety Animals and child safety Children should always be closely supervised near animals and taught how to behave safely around pets Bicycle safety and children As they grow and develop, and with the help of adults, children become increasingly aware of how they can manage their own safety and become safer road and bicycle users Burns and scalds - children Most hot tap water scald injuries to children happen in the bathroom Child safety and injury prevention By making a few practical changes to your home, you can dramatically reduce the risk of injury to your child
Childhood & Developmental Disorders
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was once considered to be a childhood-only disorder. When children with a diagnosis of ADHD. Child psychology experts from the University of Oxford and University of Pittsburgh say that the term “disorder” should be used cautiously for. It can be hard to tell the difference between normal childhood behavior and signs of Children who have anxiety disorders — such as obsessive-compulsive.