However, the stability of cannabinoids in the hair shaft has not been to THC), but its concentration continuously declined to 4% (relative to THC) after h. Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and. PDF | Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on.
Hair in 3.5. Cannabinoids
Non-user s are those who have ne ver used cannab is or have not used can nabis in the last 3 months. Light smok ers are those wh o use cannabis 6 or less times per week.
Heavy smoke rs are those wh o use cannabis mor e than 6 times a wee k. THC, tetrah ydrocann abinol. Box and Whiske r plot showin g amount of ca nnabinoid s detected. Non-u sers were not inc luded in this. Cannabinoid Frequency of cannabis use. THC Heavy and light versus non-users 0. Heavy versus light and non-users 0. Heavy versus non-users 81 0. Light versus non-users 79 0. Cannabidiol Heavy and light versus non-users 0. Cannabinol Heavy and light versus non-users 0.
Non-users are those who have never used cannabis or have not used cannabis in the last 3 months. Light smokers are those who use cannabis 6 or less times per week. Here, we would expe ct more uncertain ty in relation to. There are severa l limitations to this re search that need to. First, var ious types of can nabis are avai l-. This makes it chal lenging to quan tify cannabis co nsump-.
Furthe rmore, a cannabis ci ga-. The relative ra tios of tobacco com pounds used may also. Secon d, not only does THC and its m ain metabo-. Third, th e lack of an additional bio marker of canna-.
The availability of d ata. Compariso n with other literatu re and implicatio ns. This study extends the previously published literature in. First, it demonstrates the use of cannabis hair. Skopp and colleagues  reported that combining results. However, because of the testing procedure. CBD , any amalgamation of the other cannabinoid results. THC metabolite being observ e d. It has previ ously been rep orted that TH C can be pres-. Correlation be tween self-re ported mont hly cannabis use an d amount of cannab inoid in hair in monthl y segments.
Self-repo rted monthl y consumptio n calculate d from partici pants. THC, tetr ahydrocann abinol. However, in our sa mple,. The lower sen sitivity for det ecting any cann abis use is. Fo r example, if we assume that in a gen eral. In th is scenario a posi tive result is more lik ely to. Co nversely, if the prop ortion of. Furt hermore, we were u nable. We are extrem ely grateful to all the individ uals who took.
Avon Longit udinal Study of Parents and Chil dren who. T his publicatio n. Longitudin al Study of Par ents and Child ren core suppor t. Reporti ng bias and self- reported drug. A perspec tive on. The scienc e of self-repor t: Lawrence Ear lbaum Associat es, A review of biological indi cators of illicit.
An over view of the use of urine, ha ir, sweat. Drug and Alcohol Rev 20 04; Dru g Alcohol De-. Eur J Clin Pharmaco l ; Sta te of the art in hair analys is for detection of dr ug.
Clin Chim Acta ; Potential prob lems with the interpr etation of hair anal ysis results. Forensic Sci I nt ; Anatomy and physiology of hair. Forensic Sci Int ;6 3: Cannabinoi ds in hair: Forensic Sci Int 20 04; Impact of cannab idiol on.
Br J Psyc hiatry ;1 Proof of cannab is administra tion by sensitive. Drug Test Anal 20 14;6: Depos ition of cannabin oids. Forens ic Sci Int ; Comp arison of eth yl glucuronid e in hair with self- reported al-. Alcoho l Alcohol ; Forensic Sci Int ; Revi ew of biol ogi c matrices urin e, blood, hair as indi-.
Ther Drug Monit ; Results of hair an alyses for. Sci Int ;1 Hair as a bio logical indica tor of. Childhood co nduct disorde r trajecto-. These results are consistent with previous reports showing that hair analysis can be used as a qualitative indicator of heavy cannabis consumption, but is unable to reliably detect light cannabis consumption . Medical cannabis is becoming increasingly popular for many different ailments and improvement of general well-being. Particularly CBD-rich extracts are easily available via online pharmacies, health stores or directly from producers.
However, almost all of the extracts contain small amounts of THC. Thus, in case of continuous or heavy use of CBD rich cannabis, THC concentrations in hair may rise above accepted legal limits.
The goals were to determine levels of the cannabinoids in hair and to evaluate a possible correlation between regular CBD intake and CBD levels in hair. All participants consumed cannabis extracts from the same producer.
THC was detected in one sample only at a concentration below our cut-off, whereas CBN was not detected. In this study, we showed that even after repeated consumption of CBD-rich cannabis extracts in medium to high doses, consumers are generally tested negative for THC in hair.
Conversely, standardized units of use exist in other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, thus findings regarding health effects in these substances are more clear. Complicating cannabis research even further, existing objective measures of cannabis use are limited to recent use; sub acute cannabis exposure can be measured from urine, oral fluids and blood , whereas hair analysis can be used as a qualitative indicator of neardaily cannabis use within the past 3 months .
Of note, mental health outcomes, including diagnostic criteria, are subjective and all substantial evidence regarding some of the discussed health outcomes see Table 1 are based largely upon consistent research results with self-reports.
Time to acknowledge the mixed effects of cannabis on health: A summary and critical review of the NASEM report on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. Bulk analysis, in which a sample is obtained by homogenizing multiple strands of hair collected from a person, is generally used to prove habitual drug uses. However, the full mechanism underlying drug uptake into hair is yet to be elucidated.
Different localizations of drugs simultaneously administered in a strand of hair by micro-segmental analysis. Aug Drug Test Anal. Segmental hair analysis is used to estimate the time of drug intake at monthly precision in drug-related crimes.
Previously we advanced this analytical method to specify the day of drug intake by cutting a strand of hair into 0.
Herein, we investigated the distributions of seven compounds in a strand of hair using micro-segmental analysis. Several strands of hair were collected The administered drugs and resulting metabolites were extracted from 0. Acidic and neutral compounds were detected at low amounts in any of the hair segments analyzed.
Epinastine, fexofenadine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine, and the chlorpheniramine metabolite, desmethylchlorpheniramine each was localized to two regions within a strand of hair. By contrast, methylephedrine and its metabolite, ephedrine, each was localized to only a region. Among 20 individual strands of hair associated with different subjects and head regions, few differences in the shapes of drug concentration-hair segment curves for each compound were detected.
Our data indicated that two mechanisms for drug uptake into hair can operate depending on drug properties and that co-administered drugs can be localized to different regions in a strand of hair. Micro-segmental analysis may aid in the identification of the day of drug intake and help to elucidate the mechanisms of drug uptake into hair. Which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like effects?
Background Changes in cannabis regulation globally make it increasingly important to determine what predicts an individual's risk of experiencing adverse drug effects. Relevant studies have used diverse self-report measures of cannabis use, and few include multiple biological measures.
Here we aimed to determine which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like symptoms.
Method In a naturalistic study, young cannabis users were assessed once when intoxicated with their own cannabis and once when drug-free in counterbalanced order.
Comprehensive self-report measures were also obtained. Conclusions Levels of THC exposure are positively associated with both cannabis dependency and tolerance to the acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Combining urinary and self-report assessments use frequency; age first used enhances the measurement of cannabis use and its association with adverse outcomes. At present, testing for THC metabolites is not standard practice due to its analytical complexity.
After manual hair washing and grinding, sample preparation was fully automated, by means of a robotic autosampler. The hair extraction took place by digestion with sodium hydroxide. Derivatisation of all analytes was by silylation. The validated method has been successfully applied to our routine forensic case work and a summary of data from authentic hair samples is given, as well as data from proficiency tests.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in marijuana use prevalence and user characteristics across the recreational legalization in Washington State. Differences in change estimates between retrospective and contemporaneous pre-legalization measures are compared and considered in relation to potential social acceptability and illegality effects on reporting.
Respondents reported their current past-year use frequency and retrospective frequency of use in before the election in which legalization was passed. They also provided demographic information and details of alcohol use, including simultaneous use with marijuana. A small and not statistically significant increase of 1.
No statistically significant change was found in the prevalence of simultaneous use with alcohol, which decreased from Other findings of interest from the Washington State surveys include new users after legalization tending to be older, White, and moderate drinkers who do not use marijuana simultaneously with alcohol. A retrospective pre-legalization measure showed only a small increase in marijuana use prevalence in contrast to larger changes found in prospectively assessed use in the NSDUH.
Changes in the social acceptability and legal status of marijuana after legalization may have increased reporting of pre-legalization use compared with concurrent assessments.
May Drug Test Anal. Testing hair for cannabis use has increasingly been scrutinized due to exposure to second hand smoke or environmental contamination. Concentrations determined from specimens ranged from 0. THC was detectable in Determination of both metabolites is recommended to unequivocally differentiate consumption from external exposure or contamination.
Brazil continues its battle against road traffic injury rates that are among the highest in the world. Data provided by the Department of National Transportation regarding official toxicological results performed for the purpose of this new law from March to December were made public recently.
Among all Brazilian States, 1 tests were performed for the purpose of this new law, resulting in 16 1. No data for the prevalence of specific substances tested were disclosed. Although hair analysis offers a large detection window for many substances, the positivity rate found was lower than that revealed by previous research in which oral fluid or urine samples were collected randomly from professional drivers on Brazilian roads.
For instance, the positivity rates for cannabinoids, cocaine and amphetamines taken together varied from 5. In general, hair collection is considered a non-invasive procedure by toxicologists]; however, the collection of hair samples has been performed poorly in Brazil e. These procedures affected the physical appearance of many drivers, in addition to the fact that body hair might indicate a superior detection time window than that required by the law 90 days.
Supporters of this new legislation claim in the popular media that the implementation of mandatory hair drug testing for professional drivers has been responsible for reducing all accidents involving trucks on Brazilian federal roads by as much as one-third.
However, the data presented lack peer review support, and are unreliable in a country where driving under the influence DUI information is not collected systematically and is subject to many biases.
In fact, this is highly unlikely, as developed countries only reached a significant reduction in traffic accidents several years after the adoption of evidence-based traffic safety policies and awareness campaigns. Furthermore, the necessary specificity and sensibility ratios for hair drug testing that would be expected for judiciary reasons such as the law demands are still not satisfactory, thus adding more controversy to a positive finding as an effective deterrence method.
The implementation of this new law in Brazil has been extremely costly, and has caused embarrassment for drivers during sample collection. Background Illicit drug use increases the risk of poor physical and mental health. There are few effective drug prevention interventions. Objective To assess the acceptability of implementing and trialling two school-based peer-led drug prevention interventions. Participants UK Year 8 students aged 12—13 years at baseline.
These interventions are designed to prevent illicit drug use through training influential students to disseminate information on the risks associated with drugs and minimising harms using content from www.
Training is provided off site and follow-up visits are made in school. Stage 2 — information on the acceptability and fidelity of delivery of the interventions for refining manuals and resources. Stage 3 — a acceptability of the interventions according to prespecified criteria; b qualitative data from students, staff, parents and intervention teams on implementation and receipt of the interventions; c comparison of the interventions; and d recruitment and retention rates, completeness of primary, secondary and intermediate outcome measures and estimation of costs.
In the pilot cRCT, 12 schools were recruited, randomised and retained. The prevalence of lifetime illicit drug use was 4. All progression criteria were met. A limitation of the study was that qualitative data were collected on a self-selecting sample.
Patterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: Findings from a UK birth cohort. Background Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent. We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13—18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years.
Methods We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort. We investigated 1 factors associated with latent class membership and 2 whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years.
Results adolescents had three or more measures of cannabis use from age 13 to 18 years. The original concentrations were within the ranges reported for Caucasian hair in the literature THC was detectable in small amounts in only 3 of the 11 samples, and CBN and CBD could still be found in 3 and 1 of 8 and 3 formerly positive samples, respectively.
Obviously, the decrease in cannabinoid content was not connected to the hair color. Initially, THC might have been converted to CBN, which could be further degraded in the presence of an oxidizing agent as already indicated by the stress test. CBN was formed and reached peak concentrations after 1.
This study clearly demonstrated that cannabinoids usually measured in hair analysis are more affected by solar radiation than other drugs of abuse detected in hair, such as 6-acetylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, or cocaine CBN is thought to be a chemical degradation product of THC, and the compound concomitantly appeared during storage in plant materials or in solution, whereas the THC concentration decreased 1 7.
However, in keratinized hair exposed to sunlight, CBN was obviously further degraded. A review of the literature on the photodegradation of THC in solution and the present stress test tentatively support the suggestion of a light-induced radical reaction as the underlying mechanism 6.
Melanin is a photoreactive biopolymer. At visible and long ultraviolet UV wavelengths, it releases most of its energy as heat, whereas at short UV wavelengths, reactive intermediates may be formed These reactive species have been shown to degrade both THC and CBN as demonstrated by the hydrogen peroxide experiment. In addition to the deleterious effect of sunlight on the stability of cannabinoid constituents in hair, the weathering of hair, which damages the hair fiber at the ultrastructural level, may cause additional changes in drug concentrations in hair 18 19 The present findings may have implications on both sample collection and the interpretation of analytical results in hair analysis.
The presence of fading in single hairs of the strand or its ends should also be noted. Because of the rapid decrease in cannabinoid constituents in hair exposed to UV radiation, the result from a particular sample might be rather of a qualitative nature, and a negative finding may not conclusively indicate that there was no cannabis use.
Such work is in progress. Changes in cannabinoid content in hair strands exposed to global solar radiation for 10 weeks. Skip to main content. Research Article Technical Brief. View inline View popup. Stability of cannabinoids in dried samples of cannabis dating from around — J Ethnopharmacol ; The stability of cannabis and its preparation on storage. J Pharm Pharmacol ; JAMA ; Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Stability of cannabinoids in stored plant material.
J Pharm Sci ; Garrett ER , Tsau J. Stability of tetrahydrocannabinols I. Stable solutions for marijuana analysis.
Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption
Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double. Positive detection of cannabinoids in hair has been documented in several studies 10, 11, 12, Skopp et al. 14 provide the only study in. To use the cannabinoid example, our screening cutoff level for the cannabinoid drug class in a hair specimen is 1 pg/mg. If any of the hundreds.