Epidiolex represents a new medication option for children with these types of epilepsy. It is also the first ever FDA approved medication to treat seizures in. Treatments are available that can successfully control seizures for most people with epilepsy. The first treatment is almost always one of the many seizure. It works for about 7 out of 10 people with epilepsy. Epilepsy medications, sometimes called anti-seizure or anticonvulsant.
and Treats Epilepsy Seizures
Highland Hospital and the specialists at Highland Neurology are available to help if you or a family member suffer from seizures or epilepsy. There are many different causes of seizures. Evaluation of a first seizure requires a careful neurologic history and examination, often followed by other specialized tests.
Often the cause of a seizure is never discovered, despite extensive testing. Even if that is the case, your neurologist will be able to work with you to figure out what the next step should be. Brain cells use electrical signals to communicate with each other.
These electrical signals are normally very carefully regulated. A seizure occurs when there is an abnormal electrical discharge of brain cells all at once. Almost all seizures stop in less than five minutes, and most in less than 2 minutes. Rarely, seizures can continue for many minutes or even hours a serious medical emergency called status epilepticus. There are many different kinds of seizures.
The symptoms of a seizure depend on where in the brain the abnormal electrical signals occur. Since different parts of the brain perform different functions, seizure symptoms can be quite diverse.
A convulsion is probably the most common symptom people associate with seizures. In a convulsion, the abnormal brain electrical activity spreads over the entire brain.
The patient loses consciousness, collapses, and has rhythmic jerking of arms and legs. They may bite their tongues or lose control of bowel or bladder. The patient is often sleepy and confused for some time after the convulsion stops. If you witness a convulsion, have someone call Try and prevent the patient from hitting his or her head on any sharp objects nearby, such as corners of furniture.
DO NOT place your finger or anything else in the person's mouth! The common fear that a patient may "swallow his or her tongue" is just an old wives' tale. After the convulsion stops, roll the patient on his or her side and wait for EMS to arrive.
Learn more on first aid for seizures. Those kinds of episodes can be accompanied by behavior that looks intentional but is not such as lip smacking, picking at clothes, etc. In some seizures, the patient's awareness may be completely normal but there are involuntary muscle movements, odd sensations, or sometimes even hallucinations.
Almost every patient who has had a seizure requires an imaging study of the brain. The most common imaging studies are:. Some patients require both types of scans. These tests look for some of the visible causes of seizures, but in most cases they are normal.
Patients evaluated for seizures usually require at least one electroencephalogram EEG or "brain wave test. The procedure involves applying small metal discs called electrodes to the surface of the scalp using a dab of special gel. The length of the recording varies, but is usually minutes. Applying and removing the electrodes takes longer, though, so the entire process is over an hour.
During the actual recording, all the patient has to do is sit in a recliner and relax. It is helpful if you doze off during the recording, since abnormalities often show up during the transition between sleep and wakefulness. Some children with epilepsy have been able to reduce their seizures by following a strict diet that's high in fats and low in carbohydrates.
In this diet, called a ketogenic diet, the body breaks down fats instead of carbohydrates for energy. After a few years, some children may be able to stop the ketogenic diet — under close supervision of their doctors — and remain seizure-free.
Consult a doctor if you or your child is considering a ketogenic diet. It's important to make sure that your child doesn't become malnourished when following the diet. Side effects of a ketogenic diet may include dehydration, constipation, slowed growth because of nutritional deficiencies and a buildup of uric acid in the blood, which can cause kidney stones. These side effects are uncommon if the diet is properly and medically supervised.
Following a ketogenic diet can be a challenge. Low-glycemic index and modified Atkins diets offer less restrictive alternatives that may still provide some benefit for seizure control. In vagus nerve stimulation, an implanted pulse generator and lead wire stimulate the vagus nerve, which leads to stabilization of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
Deep brain stimulation involves implanting an electrode deep within your brain. The amount of stimulation delivered by the electrode is controlled by a pacemaker-like device placed under the skin in your chest.
A wire that travels under your skin connects the device to the electrode. A magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan of deep brain stimulation shows the location of electrodes placed in the brain.
Mayo Clinic is one of a very few medical centers in the U. It's also a leader in advancing the diagnosis and treatment of people with autoimmune epilepsy syndromes and houses a leading neuroimmunology laboratory. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease. In addition, make healthy life choices, such as managing stress, limiting alcoholic beverages and avoiding cigarettes. Uncontrolled seizures and their effects on your life may at times feel overwhelming or lead to depression.
It's important not to let epilepsy hold you back. You can still live an active, full life. If your seizures are so severe that you can't work outside your home, there are still ways to feel productive and connected to people. You may consider working from home. Let people you work and live with know the correct way to handle a seizure in case they are with you when you have one. You may offer them suggestions, such as:. You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner.
However, in some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred immediately to a specialist, such as a doctor trained in brain and nervous system conditions neurologist or a neurologist trained in epilepsy epileptologist. Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot to talk about, it's a good idea to be well-prepared for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment, and what to expect from your doctor.
Keep a detailed seizure calendar. Each time a seizure occurs, write down the time, the type of seizure you experienced and how long it lasted. Also make note of any circumstances, such as missed medications, sleep deprivation, increased stress, menstruation or other events that might trigger seizure activity. Seek input from people who may observe your seizures, including family, friends and co-workers, so that you can record information you may not know.
Take a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot. Also, because you may not be aware of everything that happens when you're having a seizure, your doctor may want to ask questions of someone who has witnessed them.
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment at any time that you don't understand something. Epilepsy care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.
This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Diagnosis Diagnosing your condition. Vagus nerve stimulation In vagus nerve stimulation, an implanted pulse generator and lead wire stimulate the vagus nerve, which leads to stabilization of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
Deep brain stimulation Deep brain stimulation involves implanting an electrode deep within your brain. Deep brain stimulation A magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan of deep brain stimulation shows the location of electrodes placed in the brain. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. References The epilepsies and seizures: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Accessed May 24, Evaluation and management of the first seizure in adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed June 13, Daroff RB, et al. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. Accessed May 5, Seizures and epilepsy in children: Classification, etiology, and clinical features.
Aminoff MJ, et al. Accessed June 26, Ferri's Clinical Advisor Overview of the management of epilepsy in adults. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Neurological diagnostic tests and procedures fact sheet. Haider HA, et al. Neuroimaging in the evaluation of seizures and epilepsy. Initial treatment of epilepsy in adults. Initial treatment and monitoring. Crepeau AZ, et al. Management of adult onset seizures.
Current and future clinical applications. Romanelli P, et al. Non-resective surgery and radiosurgery for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. Englot DJ, et al. Seizure outcomes in nonresective epilepsy surgery: External trigeminal nerve stimulation. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Fisher RS, et al.
list of anti-epileptic drugs
For more information about each drug, see "Epilepsy: Medications to Treat Seizures." Each of these drugs is slightly different. Some work well. Keywords: Cannabis, Cannabidiol, Epilepsy, Seizures, Review cannabis, to treat a variety of ailments, including nocturnal convulsions.2,4 In. Epileptic seizures are caused by irregular electrical discharges, that would allow the use of CPD oil to treat people with severe epilepsy.