But, how can you show them that you care? To help you inspire you to improve the quality of customer service, we've gathered some of our. Below are 11 ways leaders can demonstrate their appreciation for employees. 1. It isn't enough to simply assist your employees with work issues — a great with a higher return than your biggest client could ever offer you. In today's organizations, you can't be successful if you don't ask for what for how to ask for assistance at work, and how organizations can create gift my wife wanted was to be on the Food Network show Emeril Live! Industrial design firm IDEO has strong norms that motivate asking for and giving help.
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While this was going on, Britain experienced major unemployment rates. Parliament began to discuss ways in which they could deal with Britain's unemployment rates and at the same time respond to some of the urgent needs of the colonies. It was a major shift in colonial development. The doctrine of financial self-sufficiency was abandoned and Britain could now use metropolitan funds to develop the colonies.
By the late s, especially after the British West Indian labour unrest of — , it was clear that this initial scheme was far too limited in scope. A Royal Commission under Lord Moyne was sent to investigate the living conditions in the British West Indies and it published its Report in which exposed the horrendous living conditions there.
Further Acts followed in , and , dramatically increasing the scope of monetary assistance, favourable interest-free loans and development assistance programs. Development aid was aimed at offering technical solutions to social problems without altering basic social structures. The United States was often fiercely opposed to even moderate changes in social structures, for example the land reform in Guatemala in the early s. In at the end of the Korean War , the incoming Eisenhower Administration established the Foreign Operations Administration FOA as an independent government agency outside the Department of State to consolidate economic and technical assistance.
In , the Senate conducted a study of foreign aid with the help of a number of independent experts. The result, stated in a amendment to the Mutual Security Act, declared that development in low-income regions was a U. Kennedy 's support, which retained the policy of international development as an independent U.
The volume of international aid to developing countries called " Third World " at the time grew dramatically from the s. This aid came mainly from the US and Western European countries, but there were also significant contributions from the Soviet Union in exchange for overseas political influence in the context of the heightened global tensions of the Cold War. The practice of extending aid to politically aligned parties in recipient nations continues today; Faye and Niehaus are able to establish a causal relationship between politics and aid in recipient nations.
Faye and Niehaus discovered that the greater the degree of alignment the recipient party has with the donor entity, the more aid it receives on average during an election year. The Development Assistance Committee was established in by the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation to coordinate development aid amongst the rich nations. A resolution decreed that:.
The Committee will continue to consult on the methods for making national resources available for assisting countries and areas in the process of economic development and for expanding and improving the flow of long-term funds and other development assistance to them.
Although development aid rose in to the highest level ever recorded, a trend of a falling share of aid going to the neediest sub-Saharan African countries continued. The top 10 DAC countries are as follows. European Union countries that are members of the Development Assistance Committee gave 0. Development aid is often provided by means of supporting local development aid projects.
In these projects, it sometimes occurs that no strict code of conduct is in force. In some projects, the development aid workers do not respect the local code of conduct. For example, the local dress code as well as social interaction. In developing countries, these matters are regarded highly important and not respecting it may cause severe offense, and thus significant problems and delay of the projects.
There is also much debate about evaluating the quality of development aid, rather than simply the quantity. For instance, tied aid is often criticized as the aid given must be spent in the donor country or in a group of selected countries.
Tied aid can increase development aid project costs by up to 20 or 30 percent. There is also criticism because donors may give with one hand, through large amounts of development aid, yet take away with the other, through strict trade or migration policies, or by getting a foothold for foreign corporations.
The Commitment to Development Index measures the overall policies of donors and evaluates the quality of their development aid, instead of just comparing the quantity of official development assistance given. Aid effectiveness is the degree to which development aid works, and is a subject of significant disagreement. Dissident economists such as Peter Bauer and Milton Friedman argued in the s that aid is ineffective: In economics, there are two competing positions on aid.
A view pro aid, supported by Jeffrey Sachs and the United Nations, which argues that foreign aid will give the big push to break the low-income poverty trap poorer countries are trapped in. American political scientist and professor Nicolas van de Walle has also argued that despite more than two decades of donor-supported reform in Africa, the continent continues to be plagued by economic crises due to the combination of state generated factors and to the counter productivity of international development aid to Africa.
Van de Walle first attributes the failure to implement economic policy reform to factors within the African state:. Van de Walle later argues that these state generated factors that have obstructed the effective implementation of economic policy reform are further exacerbated by foreign aid.
Aid, therefore, makes policy reform less likely, rather than more likely. Van de Walle posits that international aid has sustained economic stagnation in Africa by:. In order for aid to be productive and for economic policy reform to be successfully implemented in Africa, the relationship between donors and governments must change. Van de Walle argues that aid must be made more conditional and selective to incentivize states to take on reform and to generate the much needed accountability and capacity in African governments.
Additionally, information asymmetries often hinder the appropriate allocation of aid; Blum et al. Many econometric studies in recent years have supported the view that development aid has no effect on the speed with which countries develop.
Negative side effects of aid can include an unbalanced appreciation of the recipient's currency known as Dutch Disease , increasing corruption, and adverse political effects such as postponements of necessary economic and democratic reforms.
It has been argued [ by whom? A good example of this is the former dictator of Zaire , Mobuto Sese Seko , who lost support from the West after the Cold War had ended.
Mobuto, at the time of his death, had a sufficient personal fortune particularly in Swiss banks to pay off the entire external debt of Zaire. The earnings of this project 6. The government defended this purchase by stating that "development was not possible without safety". However, the Military of Chad is notorious for severe misconduct against the population abuse, rape, claiming of supplies and cars and did not even defend the population in distress e.
In , the World Bank retreated from the project that thus increased environmental pollution and human suffering. Another criticism has been that Western countries often project their own needs and solutions onto other societies and cultures.
In response, western help in some cases has become more 'endogenous', which means that needs as well as solutions are being devised in accordance with local cultures.
While this is a noble goal, most of these projects fail because of this intent. The intent of cooperation is not necessarily a reason for failure, but the very nature of different aspirations towards defining virtues which exist in direct context with respective societies. In this way a disconnect may be perceived among those imposing their virtues onto ethnic groups interpreting them.
The Center for Global Development have published a review  essay of the existing literature studying the relationship between Aid and public institutions. In this review, they concluded that a large and sustained Aid can have a negative effect in the development of good public institutions in low income countries. They also mention some of the arguments exhibited in this article as possible mechanism for this negative effect, for instance, they considered the Dutch Disease , the discourage of revenue collections and the effect on the state capacity among others.
Furthermore, the effect of Aid on conflict intensity and onset have been proved to have different impacts in different countries and situations. For instance, for the case of Colombia Dube and Naidu  showed that Aid from the US seems to have been diverted to paramilitary groups, increasing political violence. Moreover, Nunn and Qian  have found that an increase in U.
In fact, they note that aid can have the unintentional consequence of actually improving rebel groups' ability to continue conflict, as vehicles and communications equipment usually accompany the aid that is stolen.
Finally, Crost, Felter and Johnston  have showed that a development program in the Philippines have had the unintended effect of increasing conflict because of an strategic retaliation from the rebel group, on where they tried to prevent that the development program increases support to the government.
It has also been argued that help based on direct donation creates dependency and corruption, and has an adverse effect on local production. As a result, a shift has taken place towards aid based on activation of local assets and stimulation measures such as microcredit. Aid has also been ineffective in young recipient countries in which ethnic tensions are strong: In some cases, western surpluses that resulted from faulty agriculture- or other policies have been dumped in poor countries, thus wiping out local production and increasing dependency.
In several instances, loans that were considered irretrievable for instance because funds had been embezzled by a dictator who has already died or disappeared , have been written off by donor countries, who subsequently booked this as development aid. In many cases, Western governments placed orders with Western companies as a form of subsidizing them, and later shipped these goods to poor countries who often had no use for them.
These projects are sometimes called ' white elephants '. According to James Ferguson , these issues might be caused by deficient diagnostics of the development agencies. They are established by consensus and approved by a nominated body and they provide for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results with a view to promote transparency, consistency, reproducibility, interchangeability and to facilitate communication.
The hierarchy and types of quality documents relevant to quality systems will depend upon Company business objectives and business model.
SOPs are Level 2 quality documents and, along with other relevant quality documents, ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of quality systems. SOPs establish a systematic way of doing work and ensure that work is done consistently by all persons who are required to do the same task. SOPs must be well written in order to provide an effective control of GCP and prevent errors from occurring, thereby minimizing waste and rework. Poorly written SOPs are a source of misinformation.
To be user friendly, they should be clear, unambiguous and must be written in plain language. SOPs are controlled documents and are best written by persons involved in the activity, process or function that is required to be specified or covered in the SOP. SOPs must be reviewed prior to their approval for release, for adequacy, completeness and compliance with Company standards and all applicable legal, ethical and regulatory requirements.
They must be reviewed and updated as required over their life cycle and any changes made to the SOPs must be re-approved. They must bear a revision status on them and their distribution must always be documented and controlled. When obsolete SOPs are required to be retained for any purpose, they should be suitably identified to prevent unintended use.
Only relevant SOPs in their current version must be available at points of use and must remain legible. For an activity to become the topic of an SOP, it must be either subject to regulations or it must address a task important within quality systems or between quality systems and other functional units.
Quality systems related SOPs should generally cover the following topics in order to capture the core quality control and quality assurance activities and processes:. The importance of properly established and managed quality control and quality assurance systems with their integral well-written SOPs and other quality documents for the achievement of Company business objectives cannot be ignored.
They serve as a passport to success by assisting the Company to achieve high-quality processes, procedures, systems, and people, with eventual high-quality products and services and enhancement of the following:.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Perspect Clin Res v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations.
Quality assurance, quality control, quality management, quality standards, quality systems. Ensuring that appropriate processes are implemented to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations and Company objectives;. Defining and documenting the responsibility, authority and interrelation of key personnel managing the quality systems;.
Conducting scheduled management reviews of the quality systems to assess their continued suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency; and. Appropriate global and affiliate-specific quality documents Level 1: Company policies including quality policy and quality management plan; Level 2: Personnel involved in clinical research and development are, and remain, properly qualified and trained for job roles for which they are made responsible. The training will include new staff induction, ongoing quality awareness training including training in applicable SOPs and other quality documents, training for changing roles within and between functional units, and training resulting from an analysis of needs including the results of audits and regulatory inspections, top management reviews and employee appraisals.
Further education and additional training needs should be constantly assessed by the Company. All clinical research and development activities are conducted according to Company quality standards, current GxPs, and all applicable local, national, regional and international legal, ethical and regulatory requirements as defined in the quality documents, to meet with Company quality objectives and customer requirements. A system is put in place to track all global and affiliate-specific quality documents and to maintain an up-to-date overall inventory of all historical and effective quality documents.
The parody video shows Africans getting together to campaign for Norwegian people suffering from frostbite by supplying them with unwanted radiators.
These issues arise from targeting inefficacy and poor timing of aid programs. Food aid can harm producers by driving down prices of local products, whereas the producers are not themselves beneficiaries of food aid. Unintentional harm occurs when food aid arrives or is purchased at the wrong time, when food aid distribution is not well-targeted to food-insecure households, and when the local market is relatively poorly integrated with broader national, regional and global markets. The use of food aid for emergencies can reduce the unintended consequences, although it can contribute to other associated with the use of food as a weapon or prolonging or intensifying the duration of civil conflicts.
Also, aid attached to institution building and democratization can often result in the consolidation of autocratic governments when effective monitoring is absent. International aid organizations identify theft by armed forces on the ground as a primary unintended consequence through which food aid and other types of humanitarian aid promote conflict. Food aid usually has to be transported across large geographic territories and during the transportation it becomes a target for armed forces, especially in countries where the ruling government has limited control outside of the capital.
Accounts from Somalia in the early s indicate that between 20 and 80 percent of all food aid was stolen, looted, or confiscated. On top of that 30 percent, bribes were given to Croatian forces to pass their roadblocks in order to reach Bosnia. The value of the stolen or lost provisions can exceed the value of the food aid alone since convoy vehicles and telecommunication equipment are also stolen.
A famous instance of humanitarian aid unintentionally helping rebel groups occurred during the Nigeria-Biafra civil war in the late s,  where the rebel leader Odumegwu Ojukwu only allowed aid to enter the region of Biafra if it was shipped on his planes. These shipments of humanitarian aid helped the rebel leader to circumvent the siege on Biafra placed by the Nigerian government. These stolen shipments of humanitarian aid caused the Biafran civil war to last years longer than it would have without the aid, claim experts.
The most well-known instances of aid being seized by local warlords in recent years come from Somalia , where food aid is funneled to the Shabab, a Somali militant group that controls much of Southern Somalia. Rwandan government appropriation of food aid in the early s was so problematic that aid shipments were canceled multiple times. Humanitarian aid workers have acknowledged the threat of stolen aid and have developed strategies for minimizing the amount of theft en route.
Academic research emphatically demonstrates that on average food aid promotes civil conflict. Namely, increase in US food aid leads to an increase in the incidence of armed civil conflict in the recipient country. However, it is important to note that this does not find an effect on conflict in countries without a recent history of civil conflict. Community-driven development CDD programs have become one of the most popular tools for delivering development aid.
Casualties suffered by government forces as a result of insurgent-initiated attacks increased significantly. These results are consistent with other examples of humanitarian aid exacerbating civil conflict. Related findings  of Beath, Christia, and Enikolopov further demonstrate that a successful community-driven development program increased support for the government in Afghanistan by exacerbating conflict in the short term, revealing an unintended consequence of the aid.
One of the economic cases against aid transfers, in the form of food or other resources, is that it discourages recipients from working, everything else held constant. Targeting errors of inclusion are said to magnify the labor market disincentive effects inherent to food aid or any other form of transfer by providing benefits to those who are most able and willing to turn transfers into leisure instead of increased food consumption.
Food aid programs hence take productive inputs away from local private production, creating a distortion due to substitution effects, rather than income effects. Beyond labor disincentive effects, food aid can have the unintended consequence of discouraging household-level production.
Poor timing of aid and FFW wages that are above market rates cause negative dependency by diverting labor from local private uses, particularly if FFW obligations decrease labor on a household's own enterprises during a critical part of the production cycle. This type of disincentive impacts not only food aid recipients but also producers who sell to areas receiving food aid flows. FFW programs are often used to counter a perceived dependency syndrome associated with freely distributed food.
In structurally weak economies, FFW program design is not as simple as determining the appropriate wage rate. Empirical evidence  from rural Ethiopia shows that higher-income households had excess labor and thus lower not higher as expected value of time, and therefore allocated this labor to FFW schemes in which poorer households could not afford to participate due to labor scarcity.
Similarly, FFW programs in Cambodia have shown to be an additional, not alternative, source of employment and that the very poor rarely participate due to labor constraints. Food aid is usually exported from temperate climate zones and is often different than the staple crops grown in recipient countries, which usually have a tropical climate.
Massive shipments of wheat and rice into the West African Sahel during the food crises of the mids and mids were widely believed to stimulate a shift in consumer demand from indigenous coarse grains — millet and sorghum — to western crops such as wheat. During the drought in northern Kenya , the price of changaa a locally distilled alcohol fell significantly and consumption seems to have increased as a result. This was a result of grain food aid inflows increasing the availability of low-cost inputs to the informal distilling industry.
Recent research suggests that patterns of food aid distribution may inadvertently affect the natural environment, by changing consumption patterns and by inducing locational change in grazing and other activities. A pair of studies in Northern Kenya found that food aid distribution seems to induce greater spatial concentration of livestock around distribution points, causing localized rangeland degradation, and that food aid provided as whole grain requires more cooking, and thus more fuelwood, stimulating local deforestation.
The welfare impacts of any food aid-induced changes in food prices are decidedly mixed, underscoring the reality that it is impossible to generate only positive intended effects from an international aid program.
Aid is seldom given from motives of pure altruism ; for instance it is often given as a means of supporting an ally in international politics. It may also be given with the intention of influencing the political process in the receiving nation. Whether one considers such aid helpful may depend on whether one agrees with the agenda being pursued by the donor nation in a particular case. During the conflict between communism and capitalism in the twentieth century, the champions of those ideologies — the Soviet Union and the United States — each used aid to influence the internal politics of other nations, and to support their weaker allies.
Perhaps the most notable example was the Marshall Plan by which the United States , largely successfully, sought to pull European nations toward capitalism and away from communism. Aid to underdeveloped countries has sometimes been criticized as being more in the interest of the donor than the recipient, or even a form of neocolonialism.
Asante lists some specific motives a donor may have for giving aid: As a result of these numerous criticisms, other proposals for supporting developing economies and poverty stricken societies. Some analysts, such as researchers at the Overseas Development Institute , argue that current support for the developing world suffers from a policy incoherence and that while some policies are designed to support the third world, other domestic policies undermine its impact,  examples include:.
The index measures and evaluates 22 of the world's richest countries on policies that affect developing countries, in addition to simply aid. It shows that development policy is more than just aid; it also takes into account trade, investment, migration, environment, security, and technology.
Thus, some states are beginning to go Beyond Aid and instead seek to ensure there is a policy coherence, for example see Common Agricultural Policy reform or Doha Development Round. This approach might see the nature of aid change from loans, debt cancellation, budget support etc.
This requires a strong political will, however, the results could potentially make aid far more effective and efficient. Private giving includes aid from charities, philanthropic organizations or businesses to recipient countries or programs within recipient countries. Garrett has observed that aid donor organizations have developed their own industry known as the "aid industry".
Private donors to countries in need of aid are a large part of this, by making money while finding the next best solution for the country in need of aid. These private outside donors take away from local entrepreneurship leaving countries in need of aid reliant on them. Researchers looked at how Ghana compares with groups of other countries that have been transitioning out of aid. They talk about how the World Bank reclassified Ghana from a low income country to a lower middle income country in They found Ghana experiencing significant improvements across development indicators since early s with different changes for different indicators which is consistent or better than lower middle income country averages.
Hogan argues that American aid was critical in stabilizing the economy and politics of Western Europe. It brought in modern management that dramatically increased productivity, and encouraged cooperation between labor and management, and among the member states. Local Communist parties were opposed, and they lost prestige and influence and a role in government.
In strategic terms, says Hogan, the Marshall Plan strengthened the West against the possibility of a communist invasion or political takeover. Most reject the idea that it only miraculously revived Europe, since the evidence shows that a general recovery was already under way thanks to other aid programs from the United States.
The Soviet Union concentrated on its own recovery. It seized and transferred most of Germany's industrial plants and it exacted war reparations from East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, using Soviet-dominated joint enterprises.
It used trading arrangements deliberately designed to favor the Soviet Union. Moscow controlled the Communist parties that ruled the satellite states, and they followed orders from the Kremlin. Historian Mark Kramer concludes:.
Since the s, improving the efficiency of foreign aid has been a common topic of academic research. There is debate on whether foreign aid is efficacious, but for the purposes of this article we will ignore that. Given that schema, a common debate is over which factors influence the overall economic efficiency of foreign aid. Indeed, there is debate about whether aid impact should be measured empirically at all, but again, we will limit our scope to increasing the economic efficiency.
At the forefront of the aid debate has been the conflict between professor William Easterly of New York University  and his ideological opposite, Jeffrey Sachs, from Columbia University. We will discuss both of these at length. Traditional poverty reduction , Easterly claims is based on the idea that we know what is best for impoverished countries.
He claims that they know what is best. Having a top down "master plan," he claims, is inefficient. His alternative, called the "Searchers" approach, uses a bottom up strategy. That is, this approach starts by surveying the poor in the countries in question, and then tries to directly aid individuals, rather than governments. Local markets are a key incentive structure.
The primary example is of mosquito nets in Malawi. In this example, an NGO sells mosquito nets to rich Malawians, and uses the profits to subsidize cheap sales to the impoverished. Hospital nurses are used as middle-women, profiting a few cents on every net sold to a patient.
One of the central tenets in Easterly's approach is a more bottom up philosophy of aid. This applies not only to the identification of problems, but to the actual distribution of capital to the areas in need. In effect, Easterly would have countries go to the area which needed aid, collect information about the problem, find out what the population wanted, and then work from there. In keeping with this, funds would also be distributed from the bottom up, rather than being given to a specific government.
Easterly also advocates working through currently existing Aid organizations, and letting them compete for funding. Utilizing pre-existing national organizations and local frameworks would not only help give target populations a voice in implementation and goal setting, but is more efficient economically.
Easterly argues that the preexisting frameworks already "know" what the problems are, as opposed to outside NGOs who tend to "guess". Easterly strongly discourages aid to government as a rule. He believes, for several reasons, that aid to small "bottom up" organizations and individual groups is a better philosophy than to large governments. Easterly states that for far too long, inefficient aid organizations have been funded, and that this is a problem.
The current system of evaluation for most aid organizations is internal. Easterly claims that the process is biased because organizations have a large incentive to represent their progress in a positive light. What he proposes as an alternative is an independent auditing system for aid organizations. Before receiving funding, the organization would state their goals and how they expect to measure and achieve them. If they do not meet their goals, Easterly proposes we shift our funding to organizations who are successful.
This would prompt organizations to either become efficient, or obsolete. Easterly believes that aid goals should be small. In his opinion, one of the main failings of aid lies in the fact that we create large, utopian lists of things we hope to accomplish, without the means to actually see them to fruition.
Rather than establish a utopian vision for a particular country, Easterly insists that we shift our focus to the most basic needs and improvements. If we feed, clothe, vaccinate, build infrastructure, and support markets, the macroscopic results will follow. The "Searching Approach" is intrinsically tied to the market. Easterly claims that the only way for poverty to truly end is for the poor to be given the capability to lift themselves out of poverty, and then for it to happen.
Philosophically, this sounds like the traditional "bootstrap" theory , but it is not. What he says is that the poor should be given the fiscal support to create their market, which would give them the ability to become self-reliant in the future.
In the end of his book, Easterly proposes a voucher system for foreign aid. The poor would be distributed a certain number of vouchers, which would act as currency, redeemable to aid organizations for services, medicines, and the like. These vouchers would then be redeemed by the aid organizations for more funding. In this way, the aid organization would be forced to compete, if by proxy.
Sachs presents a near dichotomy to Easterly. Sachs presents a broad, proscriptive solution to poverty. In his book, The End of Poverty, he explains how throughout history, countries have ascended from poverty by following a relatively simple model.
First, you promote agricultural development, then industrialize, embrace technology, and finally become modern.
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