Now modern science is validating what the ancients all knew — and uncovering exciting new discoveries about hemp. We are hard-wired with a system of. an incomparable source of food and medicine. Now modern science is validating what the ancients all knew - and uncovering exciting new discoveries about. This essay will present a comparison between today's scientific drove the hypotheses and discoveries of the great contributors to development of what we know as our western philosophy and this period . All historians, however, are in agreement that Ancient China made no backward step during the.
all — Now, uncovering is and new modern exciting what knew validating discoveri ancients science the
Galileo , Descartes , Bacon , and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures , and presuppositions , often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science.
Social science is concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology , archaeology , communication studies , economics , history , human geography , jurisprudence , linguistics , political science , psychology , public health , and sociology.
Social scientists may adopt various philosophical theories to study individuals and society. For example, positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense.
In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic , using multiple methodologies for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research. The term " social research " has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.
Formal science is involved in the study of formal systems. It includes mathematics ,   systems theory , robotics , and theoretical computer science. The formal sciences share similarities with the other two branches by relying on objective, careful, and systematic study of an area of knowledge.
They are, however, different from the empirical sciences as they rely exclusively on deductive reasoning, without the need for empirical evidence , to verify their abstract concepts. Calculus , for example, was initially invented to understand motion in physics. Scientific research can be labeled as either basic or applied research. Basic research is the search for knowledge and applied research is the search for solutions to practical problems using this knowledge.
Although some scientific research is applied research into specific problems, a great deal of our understanding comes from the curiosity-driven undertaking of basic research. This leads to options for technological advance that were not planned or sometimes even imaginable. This point was made by Michael Faraday when allegedly in response to the question "what is the use of basic research?
Scientific research involves using the scientific method , which seeks to objectively explain the events of nature in a reproducible way. The predictions are to be posted before a confirming experiment or observation is sought, as proof that no tampering has occurred. Disproof of a prediction is evidence of progress.
Experimentation is especially important in science to help establish causal relationships to avoid the correlation fallacy. When a hypothesis proves unsatisfactory, it is either modified or discarded. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis; commonly, a large number of hypotheses can be logically bound together by a single theory.
Thus a theory is a hypothesis explaining various other hypotheses. In that vein, theories are formulated according to most of the same scientific principles as hypotheses.
In addition to testing hypotheses, scientists may also generate a model , an attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of a logical, physical or mathematical representation and to generate new hypotheses that can be tested, based on observable phenomena. While performing experiments to test hypotheses, scientists may have a preference for one outcome over another, and so it is important to ensure that science as a whole can eliminate this bias.
Mathematics is essential in the formation of hypotheses , theories , and laws  in the natural and social sciences. For example, it is used in quantitative scientific modeling , which can generate new hypotheses and predictions to be tested. It is also used extensively in observing and collecting measurements.
Statistics , a branch of mathematics, is used to summarize and analyze data, which allow scientists to assess the reliability and variability of their experimental results. Computational science applies computing power to simulate real-world situations, enabling a better understanding of scientific problems than formal mathematics alone can achieve. According to the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics , computation is now as important as theory and experiment in advancing scientific knowledge.
John Ziman points out that intersubjective verifiability is fundamental to the creation of all scientific knowledge. Scientists usually take for granted a set of basic assumptions that are needed to justify the scientific method: The belief that scientific theories should and do represent metaphysical reality is known as realism.
It can be contrasted with anti-realism , the view that the success of science does not depend on it being accurate about unobservable entities such as electrons.
One form of anti-realism is idealism , the belief that the mind or consciousness is the most basic essence, and that each mind generates its own reality. There are different schools of thought in philosophy of science. The most popular position is empiricism , [k] which holds that knowledge is created by a process involving observation and that scientific theories are the result of generalizations from such observations.
This is necessary because the number of predictions those theories make is infinite, which means that they cannot be known from the finite amount of evidence using deductive logic only. Many versions of empiricism exist, with the predominant ones being Bayesianism  and the hypothetico-deductive method.
Empiricism has stood in contrast to rationalism , the position originally associated with Descartes , which holds that knowledge is created by the human intellect, not by observation.
Popper rejected the way that empiricism describes the connection between theory and observation. He claimed that theories are not generated by observation, but that observation is made in the light of theories and that the only way a theory can be affected by observation is when it comes in conflict with it.
Another approach, instrumentalism , colloquially termed "shut up and multiply,"  emphasizes the utility of theories as instruments for explaining and predicting phenomena. Consequences, theoretical entities, and logical structure are claimed to be something that should simply be ignored and that scientists shouldn't make a fuss about see interpretations of quantum mechanics.
Close to instrumentalism is constructive empiricism , according to which the main criterion for the success of a scientific theory is whether what it says about observable entities is true. Thomas Kuhn argued that the process of observation and evaluation takes place within a paradigm, a logically consistent "portrait" of the world that is consistent with observations made from its framing. He characterized normal science as the process of observation and "puzzle solving" which takes place within a paradigm, whereas revolutionary science occurs when one paradigm overtakes another in a paradigm shift.
The choice between paradigms involves setting two or more "portraits" against the world and deciding which likeness is most promising. A paradigm shift occurs when a significant number of observational anomalies arise in the old paradigm and a new paradigm makes sense of them. That is, the choice of a new paradigm is based on observations, even though those observations are made against the background of the old paradigm.
For Kuhn, acceptance or rejection of a paradigm is a social process as much as a logical process. Kuhn's position, however, is not one of relativism. Finally, another approach often cited in debates of scientific skepticism against controversial movements like " creation science " is methodological naturalism.
Its main point is that a difference between natural and supernatural explanations should be made and that science should be restricted methodologically to natural explanations.
Instead, supernatural explanations should be left a matter of personal belief outside the scope of science. Methodological naturalism maintains that proper science requires strict adherence to empirical study and independent verification as a process for properly developing and evaluating explanations for observable phenomena.
A scientific theory is empirical [k]  and is always open to falsification if new evidence is presented. That is, no theory is ever considered strictly certain as science accepts the concept of fallibilism.
He wrote that scientific knowledge "consists in the search for truth," but it "is not the search for certainty All human knowledge is fallible and therefore uncertain.
New scientific knowledge rarely results in vast changes in our understanding. According to psychologist Keith Stanovich , it may be the media's overuse of words like "breakthrough" that leads the public to imagine that science is constantly proving everything it thought was true to be false.
Knowledge in science is gained by a gradual synthesis of information from different experiments by various researchers across different branches of science; it is more like a climb than a leap. Therefore, scientists adhering to proper scientific approaches will doubt themselves even once they possess the truth.
Stanovich also asserts that science avoids searching for a "magic bullet"; it avoids the single-cause fallacy. This means a scientist would not ask merely "What is the cause of This is especially the case in the more macroscopic fields of science e. An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is sometimes referred to as pseudoscience , fringe science , or junk science.
There can also be an element of political or ideological bias on all sides of scientific debates. Sometimes, research may be characterized as "bad science," research that may be well-intended but is actually incorrect, obsolete, incomplete, or over-simplified expositions of scientific ideas.
The term " scientific misconduct " refers to situations such as where researchers have intentionally misrepresented their published data or have purposely given credit for a discovery to the wrong person. Scientific research is published in an enormous range of scientific literature. Since that time the total number of active periodicals has steadily increased.
In , one estimate for the number of scientific and technical journals in publication was 11, Although the journals are in 39 languages, 91 percent of the indexed articles are published in English. Most scientific journals cover a single scientific field and publish the research within that field; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally considered necessary to communicate the achievements, news, and ambitions of scientists to a wider populace.
Science books engage the interest of many more people. Tangentially, the science fiction genre, primarily fantastic in nature, engages the public imagination and transmits the ideas, if not the methods, of science. Recent efforts to intensify or develop links between science and non-scientific disciplines such as literature or more specifically, poetry , include the Creative Writing Science resource developed through the Royal Literary Fund. The scientific community is a group of all interacting scientists, along with their respective societies and institutions.
Scientists are individuals who conduct scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree , with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy PhD ,  Doctor of Medicine MD , or Doctor of Engineering DEng. Many scientists pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia , industry , government , and nonprofit environments.
Scientists exhibit a strong curiosity about reality , with some scientists having a desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of health, nations, environment, or industries. Other motivations include recognition by their peers and prestige.
The Nobel Prize , a widely regarded prestigious award,  is awarded annually to those who have achieved scientific advances in the fields of medicine , physics , chemistry , and economics. Science has historically been a male-dominated field, with some notable exceptions. Ladd"; Christine "Kitty" Ladd completed the requirements in , but was awarded her degree only in , after a career which spanned the algebra of logic see truth table , color vision, and psychology.
The achievements of women in science have been attributed to their defiance of their traditional role as laborers within the domestic sphere. Learned societies for the communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed since the Renaissance. Most scientific societies are non-profit organizations , and many are professional associations. Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline.
Some also act as professional bodies , regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership. Scholars in the sociology of science [ who? International scientific organizations, such as the International Council for Science , have since been formed to promote cooperation between the scientific communities of different nations.
Science policy is an area of public policy concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the scientific enterprise, including research funding , often in pursuance of other national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring. Science policy also refers to the act of applying scientific knowledge and consensus to the development of public policies. Science policy thus deals with the entire domain of issues that involve the natural sciences.
In accordance with public policy being concerned about the well-being of its citizens, science policy's goal is to consider how science and technology can best serve the public. State policy has influenced the funding of public works and science for thousands of years, particularly within civilizations with highly organized governments such as imperial China and the Roman Empire.
BCE , and Shi Chi 4th c. In China, such state-supported infrastructure and scientific research projects date at least from the time of the Mohists , who inspired the study of logic during the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought and the study of defensive fortifications like the Great Wall of China during the Warring States period.
Public policy can directly affect the funding of capital equipment and intellectual infrastructure for industrial research by providing tax incentives to those organizations that fund research. Vannevar Bush , director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development for the United States government, the forerunner of the National Science Foundation , wrote in July that "Science is a proper concern of government. Scientific research is often funded through a competitive process in which potential research projects are evaluated and only the most promising receive funding.
Such processes, which are run by government, corporations, or foundations, allocate scarce funds. Total research funding in most developed countries is between 1. The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions e. Many governments have dedicated agencies to support scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialisation possibilities rather than " blue-sky " ideas or technologies such as nuclear fusion.
The public awareness of science relates to the attitudes, behaviors, opinions, and activities that make up the relations between science and the general public. Social scientists have devised various metrics to measure the public understanding of science such as factual knowledge, self-reported knowledge, and structural knowledge.
The mass media face a number of pressures that can prevent them from accurately depicting competing scientific claims in terms of their credibility within the scientific community as a whole. Determining how much weight to give different sides in a scientific debate may require considerable expertise regarding the matter. Politicization of science occurs when government , business , or advocacy groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the findings of scientific research or the way it is disseminated, reported, or interpreted.
Many factors can act as facets of the politicization of science such as populist anti-intellectualism , perceived threats to religious beliefs, postmodernist subjectivism , and fear for business interests.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the general term. For other uses, see Science disambiguation. Game theory Decision theory. Actuarial science Information theory Systems theory Control theory. Physics Classical Modern Applied. Mechanics classical analytical continuum fluid solid. Molecular Atomic Nuclear Particle. Special relativity General relativity. Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical. Artificial intelligence Bioethics Bioinformatics Biostatistics Cognitive science Complex systems Computational linguistics Cultural studies Cybernetics Environmental science Environmental social science Environmental studies Ethnic studies Evolutionary psychology.
Forensics Forestry Library science. Glossaries of science and engineering. History of science in early cultures. History of science in classical antiquity. Natural science and Outline of natural science. Social science and Outline of social science. Formal science and Outline of formal science. Mathematics and Formal science. Women in STEM fields. Science policy , History of science policy , and Economics of science. Public awareness of science. Science outreach and Science communication.
It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics ; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions. Retrieved October 16, We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive Part of his effort consisted in devising ranges of experiments, of a kind probed before but now undertaken on larger scale.
There he found Arabic books of every description, and learned Arabic in order to translate these books into Latin, being aware of 'the poverty of the Latins'. Mark 1 January Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.
The full title translation is from p. Kepler was driven to this experiment after observing the partial solar eclipse at Graz, July 10, He used Tycho Brahe's method of observation, which was to project the image of the Sun on a piece of paper through a pinhole aperture, instead of looking directly at the Sun. He disagreed with Brahe's conclusion that total eclipses of the Sun were impossible, because there were historical accounts of total eclipses.
The first and fundamental form of experimentation in physics is to teach young people to work with their hands. This form of teaching is indispensable and cannot be read in a book. That was a shock. Two New Sciences "A piece of wooden moulding or scantling, about 12 cubits long, half a cubit wide, and three finger-breadths thick, was taken; on its edge was cut a channel a little more than one finger in breadth; having made this groove very straight, smooth, and polished, and having lined it with parchment, also as smooth and polished as possible, we rolled along it a hard, smooth, and very round bronze ball.
Having placed this board in a sloping position, by lifting one end some one or two cubits above the other, we rolled the ball, as I was just saying, along the channel, noting, in a manner presently to be described, the time required to make the descent. Next we tried other distances, comparing the time for the whole length with that for the half, or with that for two-thirds, or three-fourths, or indeed for any fraction; in such experiments, repeated many, many, times.
Calaprice denotes this not as an exact quotation, but as a paraphrase of a translation of A. Einstein's "Induction and Deduction". Collected Papers of Albert Einstein 7 Document Volume 7 is The Berlin Years: Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. University of Chicago Press.
Claims that before a specific fact "existed", it had to be created as part of a social agreement within a community. Steven Shapin "A view of scientific thought" Science ccvii Mar 7, —66 states "[To Fleck,] facts are invented, not discovered. Moreover, the appearance of scientific facts as discovered things is itself a social construction: The Stanford article states: The foremost modern classic on the subject Gardner bears the title Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science.
According to Brian Baigrie , , "[w]hat is objectionable about these beliefs is that they masquerade as genuinely scientific ones. For example, Hewitt et al. Scientific Method in Practice A National Science Foundation report on Science and engineering indicators quoted Michael Shermer 's definition of pseudoscience: This field constitutes an unbounded continuum of non-changing unity pervading the entire universe. All matter and energy in the universe are now understood to be just excitations of this one, all-pervading field.
Physics now has the capacity to accurately describe the sequence by which the unified field of natural law systematically gives rise, through its own self-interacting dynamics, to the diverse force and matter fields that constitute the universe. With a precision almost undreamed of a few years ago, the modern science of cosmology can now account for the exact sequence of dynamical symmetry breaking by which the unified field, the singularity at the moment of cosmogenesis, sequentially gave rise to the diverse force fields and matter fields.
It is now possible to determine the time and sequence in which each force and matter field decoupled from the unified field, often to within a precision of minute fractions of a second.
This gives us a clear understanding of how all aspects of the physical universe emerge from the unified field of natural law.
Mathematics, physiology, and other sciences have also located a unified source and basis of all the laws of nature in their respective disciplines. In mathematics, the foundational area of set theory provides an account of the sequential emergence of all of mathematics out of the single concept of a set and the relationship of set membership.
The iterative mechanics of set formation at the foundation of set theory directly present the mechanics of an underlying unified field of intelligence that is self-sufficient, self-referral, and infinitely dynamic in its nature. Investigations into the foundations of set theory are ultimately investigations of this unified field of intelligence from which all diversity of the discipline emerges in a rigorous and sequential fashion.
In physiology, it is the DNA molecule that contains, either explicitly or implicitly, the information specifying all structures and functions of the individual physiology.
In this sense, therefore, it is DNA that unifies the discipline by serving as a unified source to which the diversity of physiological functioning can be traced.
Each of the modern sciences may indeed be said to have glimpsed a unified state of complete knowledge in which all laws of nature are contained in seed form. Each has gained some knowledge of how the unified field of natural law sequentially unfolds into the diverse expressions of natural law constituting its field of study. Modern science is now discovering and exploring the fundamental unity of all laws of nature. For this reason, and other reasons to be considered below, it is also appropriately called a science.
The founders of the ancient Vedic tradition discovered the capability of the human mind to settle into a state of deep silence while remaining awake, and therein to experience a completely unified, simple, and unbounded state of awareness, called pure consciousness, which is quite distinct from our ordinary waking, sleeping, or dreaming states of consciousness.
In that deep silence, they discovered the capability of the mind to become identified with a boundless, all-pervading, unified field that is experienced as an eternal continuum underlying all existence. They gave expression to the self-sufficient, infinitely dynamic, self-interacting qualities of this unified state of awareness; and they articulated the dynamics by which it sequentially gives rise, through its own self-interacting dynamics, to the field of space-time geometry, and subsequently to all the distinct forms and phenomena that constitute the universe.
They perceived the fine fabric of activity, as Maharishi explains it, through which this unity of pure consciousness, in the process of knowing itself, gives rise sequentially to the diversity of natural law and ultimately to the whole of nature. The experience of the unified field of all the laws of nature appears to be a direct experience of this sort, except that it includes all laws of nature at one time as a unified totality at the basis of all existence?
The ancient Vedic literature, as Maharishi interprets it, expresses in the sequence of its flow and the structure of its organization, the sequence of the unfoldment of the diversity of all laws of nature out of the unified field of natural law.
The Veda is thus to be understood as the sequential flow of this process of the oneness of pure consciousness giving rise to diversity; and Vedic Science is to be understood as a body of knowledge based on the direct experience of the sequential unfoldment of the unified field into the diversity of nature. It is an account, according to Maharishi, of the origin of the universe from the unified field of natural law, an account that is open to verification through direct experience, and is thus to be understood as a systematic science.
These ancient seers of the Vedic tradition developed techniques to refine the human physiology so that it can produce this level of experience, techniques that were passed on over many generations, but were eventually lost. He has thus provided a reliable method of access to this field of direct experience where the oneness of pure consciousness gives rise to the diversity of the laws of nature; and he has also developed applications of this technology that render it open to experimental testing.
These applications will be considered below. Maharishi describes the experience of this unified field of consciousness as an experience of a completely unchanging, unbounded unity of consciousness, silently awake within itself. This unmanifest basis of life, where all laws of nature eternally reside in a collected unity, is experienced as the fabric of the silent field of consciousness itself, which is not in space and time, but lies at the unmanifest basis of all manifest activity in space and time.
Glimpses of this universal domain of experience where all possibilities reside together in an eternally unified state have been reported in almost every culture and historical epoch, from Plato to Plotinus and Augustine, and from Leibniz to Hegel and Whitehead. Scientists like Kepler, Descartes, Cantor, and Einstein also appear to have written of it and seemingly drew their insights into the laws of nature from this experience.
The Self-lnteracting Dynamics of Consciousness When one gains the capability, through the practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field, of remaining awake while becoming perfectly settled and still, one gains the ability to experience a completely simple, unified, undifferentiated, self-referral state of pure consciousness, which is called samhita in the Vedic literature, in which knower, known, and process of knowing are one and the same.
Consciousness is simply awake to itself, knowing its own nature as simple, unified pure consciousness. Yet in knowing itself, the state of pure consciousness creates an intellectually conceived distinction between itself as knower, itself as known, and itself as process of knowing. According to Maharishi, from the various interactions and transformations of these three intellectually conceived values in the unified state of pure consciousness, all diverse forms of knowledge, all diverse laws of nature, and ultimately all diversity in material nature itself sequentially emerge.
The conscious mind, awake at this totally settled and still level of awareness, can witness the mechanics by which this diversification of the many out of the unity of pure consciousness takes place. The mechanics of rishi, devata, and chhandas transforming themselves into samhita, samhita transforming itself into rishi, devata, and chhandas, and rishi, devata, and chhandas transforming themselves into each other are the mechanics by which the unity of pure consciousness gives rise to the diversity of natural law.
These mechanics are expressed in the sequential unfoldment of Vedic literature. These are the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness knowing itself, which, Maharishi asserts, sequentially give rise to all diversity in nature. Maharishi describes this self-referral state of consciousness as the basis of all creative processes in nature:. This self-referral state of consciousness is that one element in nature on the ground of which the infinite variety of creation is continuously emerging, growing, and dissolving.
The whole field of change emerges from this field of non-change, from this self-referral, immortal state of consciousness. The interaction of the different intellectually conceived components of this unified self-referral state of consciousness is that all-powerful activity at the most elementary level of nature.
That activity is responsible for the innumerable varieties of life in the world, the innumerable streams of intelligence in creation. The phonology of that syllable, as analyzed by Maharishi, expresses the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness knowing itself. As pure consciousness interacts with itself, at every stage of creation a new level of wholeness emerges to express the same self-interacting dynamics of rishi, devata, and chhandas.
Thus the body of Vedic literature reflects, in its very organization and structure, the sequential emergence of all structures of natural law from the unity of pure consciousness. As Maharishi describes it:. The whole of Vedic literature is beautifully organized in its sequential development to present complete knowledge of the reality at the unmanifest basis of creation and complete knowledge of all of its manifest values.
The diversity of creation sequentially unfolding from the unity of consciousness is the result of distinctions being created within the wholeness of consciousness, as consciousness knows itself. Thus from the perspective of Vedic Science, the entire universe is just an expression of consciousness moving within itself: Through the texts of ancient Vedic science, as interpreted by Maharishi, we possess a rich account of the emergence of diversity out of the unity of natural law. On the basis of this account, it becomes feasible to compare the Vedic description of the origin of the universe with that of the modern sciences.
Modern Science and Vedic Science When Maharishi heard from major scientists of the recent advances of unified field theory in physics, he asserted that modern science had glimpsed the unified field described in ancient Vedic science.
Over the past decade, Maharishi has participated in numerous symposia with major scientists on the theme of exploring modern science and Vedic Science to discover detailed structural similarities in their descriptions of the unified field. These symposia have attracted eminent unified field theorists, mathematicians, and physiologists, including a number of Nobel laureates, as well as many of the most highly recognized pundits of the Vedic tradition.
Out of these interactions has come a meeting of two traditions, East and West, on the ground of their common theme: Those who have followed these symposia have recognized a deep and impressive structure of knowledge common to both traditions. Both identify a boundless, all-pervading field underlying all states of matter and energy in the universe; both locate it on the most fundamental time-distance scale of nature; both assign to it the same properties of self-sufficiency, self-interaction, infinite dynamism, unboundedness, and unity, among many other common attributes; both identify a threefold structure at the basis of all nature; and both describe a dynamics by which the diversity of nature sequentially emerges from this unified field according to precise laws.
His work brought these two diverse methods of inquiry into close relation, drawing upon both the latest developments of unified field theories and the direct experience of the unified field. As further evidence for the identity of consciousness and the unified field, he cited deep parallels between the descriptions of the unified field found in physics and Vedic Science.
These strikingly similar descriptions support the conclusion that modern science and Vedic Science are two complementary methods of approach to the same underlying unity of nature. The New Paradigm of the Unity of Nature It is a common belief that the unified field of physics is an objective reality of nature and that consciousness is a subjective experience, and that the two belong therefore to different categories of existence.
According to this understanding, one is purely material, the other is purely mental, and the two cannot, therefore, be equated. Through the experience of pure consciousness described in Vedic Science, that unified level of intelligence is experienced, not as a mere subjective and localized phenomenon of thought or sensation, but as a non-changing, unbounded field of being, pervading all forms and phenomena in the universe on a non-active, or silent, and unmanifest level.
Objective and subjective aspects of nature are seen as but two manifest modes of this unified field at the unmanifest basis of existence. A thorough examination of the nature of the unified field in physics and the descriptions of unbounded consciousness brought to light by Maharishi supports the thesis that they are but two complementary modes of apprehending a single underlying reality.
The view of nature as consisting of billiard-ball-type objects, each separate, discrete, and isolated from the other, belongs to the old classical Newtonian view of the world. Quantum field theory in modern physics no longer views nature in this way, but provides a new understanding in which the primary reality is that of quantum fields.
All forms of matter and energy are understood to be excitations of these underlying fields. In the last year and a half, the apparently different fields of gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong interactions have been theoretically unified as different levels of expression of one single underlying field.
All forms and phenomena in the universe are just modes of vibratory excitation of this one, all-pervading unified field. When the unbounded level of pure consciousness is gained as a direct experience, all activity in nature is experienced as an excited state of that one, all-pervading field.
Since quantum field theory also describes all activity in the universe as excitations of one underlying field, the simplest interpretation is that there is a single unified field which can be known both through direct experience and through the objective sciences.
In this new understanding of the unity of nature, mind and matter cease to be viewed as ultimately different and come to be seen as expressions of a deeper unity of unbounded consciousness. The unity of nature is not a mere hypothetical unity, nor a unity of intellectual understanding or interpretation. It is a unity of direct experience that has been described in almost every tradition and every historical epoch.
What is radically new is that Maharishi has provided a systematic and reliable method by which anyone can gain access to this level of experience. This method of access is the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field has been introduced by Maharishi as an effective means for opening the unified field to all as a direct experience.
In this way, the unified field becomes universally accessible to systematic exploration. The TM program provides a systematic procedure by which the mind is allowed to settle naturally into a state of restful alertness, the self- referral state of pure consciousness in which the mind is completely silent and yet awake.
In this way, the state of pure consciousness, which has been the subject of philosophical speculation throughout the centuries, can now be investigated on the basis of direct experience. This quiet, still level of consciousness has rarely been experienced in the past because no systematic and effective technique has been available for providing that experience.
The TM technique is a simple, natural, and effortless procedure for allowing the awareness to settle into a state of deep silence while remaining awake. It has proved to be uniquely effective in making this level of experience widely accessible.
Through the deep rest gained during the practice of the technique, balance is systematically created on all levels of physiological functioning, and the nervous system is habituated to a more settled, coherent, and alert style of functioning. In time, a state of completely integrated functioning is gained, in which pure consciousness is spontaneously and permanently maintained. Once this state is established, the silent, self-referral field of awareness is always present as a stable, non-changing ground underlying all changing states of awareness.
This integrated state of consciousness, Maharishi holds, is the basis of all excellence in life and provides the foundation for the further development of higher states of consciousness through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs.
Enlightenment is that fully developed state of life in which one enjoys complete knowledge and lives in total fulfillment. In this state, one lives in harmony with all laws of nature, enjoying the full support of natural law to achieve any desire without making mistakes.
Maharishi has identified a specific sequence of higher states of consciousness, each distinct from waking, dreaming, and sleeping, which, he asserts, arise in the normal full course of human development. These states can be distinguished from waking, dreaming, and sleeping on the basis of their distinct physiological correlates.
The higher states of consciousness that arise in this developmental sequence are, Maharishi asserts, a source of greater joy, knowledge, and fulfillment than ordinary waking state life. Vedic Science is just the exposition of the full range of direct experience that unfolds during the course of the natural development of human consciousness.
These states of consciousness are universal stages of human development accessible to everyone through the practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. What before was shrouded in the veil of mysticism is now scientifically understood as a normal, natural stage of human life available to anyone. Another article in the first issue, by Dr.
Charles Alexander et al. This article unfolded the scientific basis for understanding and verifying higher states of consciousness from the standpoint of a developmental psychologist, and laid the basis for a new paradigm of human development.
Since the unified field is all-pervading and everywhere the same, a nervous system finely enough attuned in its functioning can gain the ability, according to Maharishi, to experience and identify itself with that unbounded, undifferentiated and unified field underlying all activity in nature. Gaining this unified state of consciousness is the means by which anyone can experience and confirm the structure of knowledge and reality described in Vedic Science. This is partly what makes Vedic Science a precise, verifiable science: Other foundational aspects of this science will be considered below.
Modern physics, through its objective method of inquiry, has glimpsed a unified field underlying all of nature; but physics has reached a fundamental impasse in its ability to experimentally investigate the unified field, because the energies required to probe these finer scales exceed those attainable by any conceivable particle accelerator technology. Where physics can go no further, the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field facilitates inquiry beyond the limitations of the objective approach by providing an effective means of exploring the unified field on the level of direct experience.
This exploration of the unified field through the subjective experience of consciousness is a well structured program of research. It is guided by the knowledge of Vedic Science set forth by Maharishi in conjunction with the modern sciences. When descriptions of the unified field from the standpoint of modern science, Vedic Science, and direct experience coalesce, the three together provide a basis of complete knowledge. Veda is just the structure of the self-interacting dynamics through which the unified field gives rise to the diverse expressions of natural law.
Fundamental theoretical concepts in physics and other disciplines, insofar as they are valid descriptions of nature, should therefore correspond to different aspects of Vedic literature that describe these realities from the standpoint of direct experience. The basic program of research of modern science and Vedic Science, as conceived by Maharishi, thus has three major goals:. He returned to Cairo to inform the caliph that his solution was not possible.
He knew that Islamic law would protect a mad person from bearing responsibility for his failure. Rather than executing or expelling Ibn al-Haytham from Cairo, the caliph decided to put the scholar under permanent protective custody. That was required by law in order to ensure his safety and that of others. Ibn al-Haytham was placed under what amounted to house arrest, far from the lively discourses and debates to which he was accustomed. Yet it just as life was at its bleakest moment.
Ibn al-Haytham might have made the dazzling discovery for which he is best remembered. Legend says, one day he saw light shining through a tiny pinhole into his darkened room — projecting an image of the world outside onto the opposite wall.
Ibn al-Haytham realized that he was seeing images of objects outside that were lit by the Sun. From repeated experiments he concluded that light rays travel in straight lines, and that vision is accomplished when these rays pass into our eyes. After many additional experiments using special apparatus of lenses and mirrors which he built, he laid down his new ideas about light and vision in his seven volumes Book of Optics.
He was released from prison on the death disappearance of the caliph. Ibn al-Haytham died at the age of 74 in His greatest work, the Book of Optics , had perhaps begun from the confines of imprisonment and was completed around the year but its impact rippled out across the whole world. Both his optical discoveries, and the fact that they had been validated using hands-on experiments, would influence those who came after him for centuries.
So how did that influence shine its light on later generations? In the early 12th century, Toledo in Spain was the focus of a huge effort to translate Arabic books into Latin.
Christian, Jewish and Muslim scholars flocked to the city, where they lived alongside one another and worked together to translate the old knowledge into Latin and then into other European languages. In his experiments, he observed that light coming through a tiny hole travelled in straight lines and projected an image onto the opposite wall. But he realised that light entering the eye was only the first step in seeing. He built on the work of Greek physician Galen who had provided a detailed description of the eye and the optic pathways.
Ibn al-Haytham suggested that only the light rays that hit the surface of the eye head-on would pass into the eye, creating a representation of the world.
It was Kepler in the sixteenth century who corrected this and proposed that the object of sight — what is seen comes from both perpendicular and angular rays that hit the eye to form an inverted image on the retina.
Now modern science is validating what the ancients all knew – and uncovering exciting new discoveries about hemp. Hemp History Facts: First American Flag. Get to know the scientists that changed the world as we know it though 8, , and the New York museum was showing a film about Albert The validation made Einstein a superstar. And just five months later, they announced their discovery of yet . And even today, his legacy still turns the lights on. There are other methods of discovering and learning knowledge about nature All scientists practice scientific thinking, of course, since they are actively explicit, rigorous, and successful practitioners of critical thinking today. . at all levels in recent years to correct this bias by implementing discovery and.