Page not available
This chapter will provide an in-depth summary of the findings regarding neuroactive steroid abnormalities in panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, generalized social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. How these abnormalities may be related to illness symptoms or whether they may reflect compensatory mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis will be explored. Furthermore, the regulation of steroidal abnormalities by drugs used to treat the above-mentioned disorders will be discussed.
Download to read the full chapter text. Baulieu EE, Robel P. Anxiolytic effects of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha[beta]-pregnanone: Brain Res ; A new regulatory function in the nervous system. Anxiolytic activity of an endogenous adrenal steroid. Anxiolytic activity of the progesterone metabolite 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-o1—one. Changes in progesterone metabolites in the hippocampus can modulate open field and forced swim test behavior of proestrous rats.
Horm Behav ; The anxiolytic effect of pregnancy in rats is reversed by finasteride. Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; Reversal of caffeine-induced anxiety by neurosteroid 3-alpha-hydroxyalpha-pregnaneone in rats. Reduction of predator odor-induced anxiety in mice by the neurosteroid 3 alpha-hydroxypregnenone 3 alpha HP. Evaluation of GABAergic neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnaneone as a neurobiological substrate for the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol in rats.
Psychopharmacology Berl ; Decreased cerebrospinal fluid allopregnanolone levels in women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry ; Stress-induced elevations of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-active steroids in the rat brain. Stress-induced increase in brain neuroactive steroids: The effects of inhibitors of GABAergic transmission and stress on brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations.
Br J Pharmacol ; The neurosteroid tetrahydroprogesterone counteracts corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced anxiety and alters the release and gene expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the rat hypothalamus. The neurosteroid tetrahydroprogesterone attenuates the endocrine response to stress and exerts glucocorticoid-like effects on vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.
Evidence for a role of neurosteroids in modulation of diurnal changes and acute stress-induced corticosterone secretion in rats. Gynecol Endocrinol ; 9: Aguilera G, Rabadan-Diehl C. Vasopressinergic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: Regul Pept ; Stress-induced increase in vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing factor expression in hypophysiotrophic paraventricular neurons. Regulatory changes in neuroendocrine stress-integrative circuitry produced by a variable stress paradigm.
Anti-glucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA. Mol Cell Biochem ; Sex differences in endocrine and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in healthy elderly subjects and the impact of a 2-week dehydroepiandrosterone treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; Anxiogenic-like effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on rats tested on the elevated plus-maze.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; Remission rates in patients with anxiety disorders treated with paroxetine. J Clin Psychiatry ; The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in adult social anxiety disorder: J Psychopharmacol ; Increased brain GABA concentrations following acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
Am J Psychiatry ; Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors directly alter activity of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. Fluoxetine-elicited changes in brain neurosteroid content measured by negative ion mass fragmentography. Opposite effects of short- versus long-term administration of fluoxetine on the concentrations of neuroactive steroids in rat plasma and brain.
Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine stereospecifically facilitate pentobarbital sedation by increasing neurosteroids. GABA A receptor neurotransmission dysfunction in a mouse model of social isolation-induced stress: Brain neurosteroid changes after paroxetine administration in mice.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine stereospecifically and selectively increase brain neurosteroid content at doses that are inactive on 5-HT reuptake. Low posttrauma GABA plasma levels as a predictive factor in the development of acute posttraumatic stress disorder.
Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in prefrontal cortex in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Central type benzodiazepine receptors in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: Low urinary cortisol excretion in Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Elevated circulatory level of GABA A -antagonistic neurosteroids in patients with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med ; Clinical correlates of DHEA associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand ; Elevated blood levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate vary with symptom load in posttraumatic stress disorder: Psychother Psychosom ; Neuroactive steroids and suicidality in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Administration of RU for 8 days in normal volunteers: Chronic brain glucocorticoid receptor blockade enhances the rise in circadian and stress-induced pituitary-adrenal activity. Sageman S, Brown RP. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with tiagabine. Can J Psychiatry ; Fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder. Alterations in stress reactivity after long-term treatment with paroxetine in women with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Ann NY Acad Sci ; Use of benzodiazepines in social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry ; 65 Suppl 5: Plasma levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and panic disorder. Psychiatry Res ; Cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid in patients with panic disorder.
Reductions in occipital cortex GABA levels in panic disorder detected with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; Decreased GABA levels in anterior cingulate and basal ganglia in medicated subjects with panic disorder: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; Impaired GABA neuronal response to acute benzodiazepine administration in panic disorder. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system in patients with panic disorder.
HPA axis activity in patients with panic disorder: Depress Anxiety ; Plasma concentrations of anxiolytic neuroactive steroids in men with panic disorder. Neurosteroid secretion in panic disorder. GABAA receptor-modulating neuroactive steroid composition in patients with panic disorder before and during paroxetine treatment. The protective effect of frontal cortex dehydroepiandrosterone in anxiety and depressive models in mice.
Neuroactive steroids are not affected by panic induction with 50 microg cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide CCK-4 in healthy volunteers. J Psychiatr Res ; Induced panic attacks shift gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulatory neuroactive steroid composition in patients with panic disorder: Panic induction with cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide CCK-4 Increases plasma concentrations of the neuroactive steroid 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone 3alpha, 5alpha-THDOC in healthy volunteers.
Salivary cortisol levels in socially phobic adolescent girls. Abnormal salivary cortisol levels in social phobic patients in response to acute psychological but not physical stress.
Levels of urinary free cortisol in social phobia.