House of BonaparteMost of the areas which today are within modern Greece 's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire. This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the midth century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in preceded by the creation of the autonomous Septinsular Republic in napoleon bonaparte greece, is known napoleon bonaparte greece Greek as Tourkokratia Greek: The Byzantine Empirethe remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over years, had been fatally napoleon bonaparte greece since the deca durabolin stacked with testosterone of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by victory over the Serbs to its north. First, the Ottomans won the Battle of Maritsa in
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Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece 's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire. This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the midth century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in preceded by the creation of the autonomous Septinsular Republic in , is known in Greek as Tourkokratia Greek: The Byzantine Empire , the remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by victory over the Serbs to its north.
First, the Ottomans won the Battle of Maritsa in This was followed by another Ottoman victory in the Battle of Kosovo. With no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans besieged and took Constantinople in and then advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in The Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until , and the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands, but by the early 16th century all of mainland Greece and most of the Aegean islands were in Ottoman hands, excluding several port cities still held by the Venetians Nafplio , Monemvasia , Parga and Methone the most important of them.
The mountains of Greece were largely untouched, and were a refuge for Greeks who desired to flee Ottoman rule and engage in guerrilla warfare. The Cyclades islands, in the middle of the Aegean, were officially annexed by the Ottomans in , although they were under vassal status since the s. Cyprus fell in , and the Venetians retained Crete until The Ionian Islands were never ruled by the Ottomans, with the exception of Kefalonia from to and from to , and remained under the rule of the Republic of Venice.
It was in the Ionian Islands where modern Greek statehood was born, with the creation of the Republic of the Seven Islands in The consolidation of Ottoman power in the 15th and 16th centuries rendered the Mediterranean safe for Greek shipping, and Greek shipowners became the maritime carriers of the Empire, making tremendous profits.
This period of Ottoman rule had a profound impact in Greek society, as new elites emerged. The Greek land-owning aristocracy that traditionally dominated the Byzantine Empire suffered a tragic fate, and was almost completely destroyed. The prokritoi were essentially bureaucrats and tax collectors, and gained a negative reputation for corruption and nepotism. After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in , the Despotate of the Morea was the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire to hold out against the Ottomans.
However, this, too, fell to the Ottomans in , completing the Ottoman conquest of mainland Greece. While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century, Cyprus and Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until and respectively. The only part of the Greek-speaking world that escaped Ottoman rule was the Ionian Islands , which remained Venetian until Corfu withstood three major sieges in , and all of which resulted in the repulsion of the Ottomans.
The " Battle of Lepanto " prevented the Ottomans from expanding further. The consolidation of Ottoman rule was followed by two distinct trends of Greek migration. The first entailed Greek intellectuals, such as Basilios Bessarion , Georgius Plethon Gemistos and Marcos Mousouros , migrating to other parts of Western Europe and influencing the advent of the Renaissance though the large scale migration of Greeks to other parts of Europe, most notably Italian university cities, began far earlier, following the Crusader capture of Constantinople .
This trend had also effect on the creation of the modern Greek diaspora. The second entailed Greeks leaving the plains of the Greek peninsula and resettling in the mountains, where the rugged landscape made it hard for the Ottomans to establish either military or administrative presence. The Sultan sat at the apex of the government of the Ottoman Empire.
Although he had the trappings of an absolute ruler, he was actually bound by tradition and convention. Indeed, the Qur'an was the main restriction on absolute rule by the sultan and in this way, the Qur'an served as a "constitution.
Ottoman rule of the provinces was characterized by two main functions. The local administrators within the provinces were to maintain a military establishment and to collect taxes. All non-Muslims were forbidden to ride a horse which made traveling more difficult. The conquered land was parceled out to Ottoman soldiers, who held it as feudal fiefs timars and ziamets directly under the Sultan's authority.
This land could not be sold or inherited, but reverted to the Sultan's possession when the fief-holder timariot died. Conversion to Islam was not a requirement, and as late as the fifteenth century many timariots were known to be Christian, although their numbers gradually decreased over time. The Ottomans basically installed this feudal system right over the top of the existing system of peasant tenure. The peasantry remained in possession of their own land and their tenure over their plot of land remained hereditary and inalienable.
All non-Muslims were in theory forbidden from carrying arms, but this was ignored. Indeed, in regions such as Crete, almost every man carried arms. Greek Christian families were, however, subject to a system of conscription known as the devshirme.
The Ottomans required that male children from Christian peasant villages be conscripted and enrolled in the corps of Janissaries for military training in the Sultan's army. The practice largely came to an end by the middle of the seventeenth century. Under the Ottoman system of government, Greek society was at the same time fostered and restricted.
With one hand the Turkish regime gave privileges and freedom to its subject people; with the other it imposed a tyranny deriving from the malpractices of its administrative personnel over which it exercised only remote and incomplete control.
The term rayah came to denote an underprivileged, tax-ridden and socially inferior population. The economic situation of the majority of Greece deteriorated heavily during the Ottoman era of the country. Life became ruralized and militarized. Heavy burdens of taxation were placed on the Christian population, and many Greeks were reduced to subsistence farming whereas during prior eras the region had been heavily developed and urbanized. The exception to this rule was in Constantinople and the Venetian -held Ionian islands , where many Greeks lived in prosperity.
After about , the Ottomans resorted to military rule in parts of Greece, which provoked further resistance, and also led to economic dislocation and accelerated population decline. Ottoman landholdings, previously fiefs held directly from the Sultan, became hereditary estates chifliks , which could be sold or bequeathed to heirs.
The new class of Ottoman landlords reduced the hitherto free Greek farmers to serfdom, leading to depopulation of the plains, and to the flight of many people to the mountains, in order to escape poverty. The Patriarch was accountable to the Sultan for the good behavior of the Orthodox population, and in exchange he was given wide powers over the Orthodox communities, including the non-Greek Slavic peoples.
The Patriarch controlled the courts and the schools, as well as the Church, throughout the Greek communities of the empire. This made Orthodox priests, together with the local magnates, called Prokritoi or Dimogerontes, the effective rulers of Greek towns and cities. Some Greek towns, such as Athens and Rhodes , retained municipal self-government, while others were put under Ottoman governors.
Several areas, such as the Mani Peninsula in the Peloponnese, and parts of Crete Sfakia and Epirus , remained virtually independent. During the frequent Ottoman—Venetian Wars , the Greeks sided with the Venetians against the Ottomans, with a few exceptions. As a rule, the Ottomans did not require the Greeks to become Muslims , although many did so on a superficial level in order to avert the socioeconomic hardships of Ottoman rule  or because of the alleged corruption of the Greek clergy.
Under the millet logic, Greek Muslims , despite often retaining elements of their Greek culture and language, were classified simply as "Muslim", although most Greek Orthodox Christians deemed them to have "turned-Turk" and therefore saw them as traitors to their original ethno-religious communities.
Some Greeks either became New Martyrs , such as Saint Efraim the Neo-Martyr or Saint Demetrios the Neo-martyr while others became Crypto-Christians Greek Muslims who were secret practitioners of the Greek Orthodox faith in order to avoid heavy taxes and at the same time express their identity by maintaining their secret ties to the Greek Orthodox Church. Crypto-Christians officially ran the risk of being killed if they were caught practicing a non-Muslim religion once they converted to Islam.
Byzantine historians noted the liberal and generous nature of Ottoman Sultans. Bayezid I , according to a Byzantine historian, freely admitted Christians into his society while Murad II set out reforms of abuses that was prevalent under Greek rulers.
Selim ordered the confiscation of all Christian churches, and while this order was later rescinded, Christians were heavily persecuted during his era. Greeks paid a land tax and a heavy tax on trade, the latter taking advantage of the wealthy Greeks to fill the state coffers. Failure to pay the jizya could result in the pledge of protection of the Christian's life and property becoming void, facing the alternatives of conversion; enslavement or death.
Like in the rest of the Ottoman Empire, Greeks had to carry a receipt certifying their payment of jizya at all times or be subject to imprisonment. Most Greeks did not have to serve in the Sultan's army, but the young boys that were taken away and converted to Islam were made to serve in the Ottoman military. In addition, girls were taken in order to serve as odalisques in harems. There was much resistance to this. For example, Greek folklore tells of mothers crippling their sons to avoid their abduction.
Nevertheless, entrance into the corps accompanied by conversion to Islam offered Greek boys the opportunity to advance as high as governor or even Grand Vizier.
Opposition of the Greek populace to taxing or paidomazoma resulted in grave consequences. For example, in an Ottoman official was sent from Naoussa in Macedonia to search and conscript new Janissaries and was killed by Greek rebels who resisted the burden of the devshirmeh. The rebels were subsequently beheaded and their severed heads were displayed in the city of Thessaloniki. In other cases, the families bribed the officers to ensure that their children got a better life as a government officer.
After the 16th century, many Greek folk songs dimotika were produced and inspired from the way of life of the Greek people, brigands and the armed conflicts during the centuries of Ottoman rule. Over the course of the eighteenth century Ottoman landholdings, previously fiefs held directly from the Sultan, became hereditary estates chifliks , which could be sold or bequeathed to heirs. The new class of Ottoman landlords reduced the hitherto free Greek peasants to serfdom , leading to further poverty and depopulation in the plains.
On the other hand, the position of educated and privileged Greeks within the Ottoman Empire improved greatly in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Phanariotes , a class of wealthy Greeks who lived in the Phanar district of Constantinople, became increasingly powerful.
Their travels to Western Europe as merchants or diplomats brought them into contact with advanced ideas of liberalism and nationalism , and it was among the Phanariotes that the modern Greek nationalist movement was born. Many Greek merchants and travelers were influenced by the ideas of the French revolution and a new Age of Greek Enlightenment was initiated at the beginning of the 19th century in many Ottoman-ruled Greek cities and towns.
Greek nationalism was also stimulated by agents of Catherine the Great , the Orthodox ruler of the Russian Empire , who hoped to acquire Ottoman territory, including Constantinople itself, by inciting a Christian rebellion against the Ottomans. However, during the Russian-Ottoman War which broke out in , the Greeks did not rebel, disillusioning their Russian patrons. The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji gave Russia the right to make "representations" to the Sultan in defense of his Orthodox subjects, and the Russians began to interfere regularly in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire.
This, combined with the new ideas let loose by the French Revolution of , began to reconnect the Greeks with the outside world and led to the development of an active nationalist movement, one of the most progressive of the time. Greece was peripherally involved in the Napoleonic Wars , but one episode had important consequences. When the French under Napoleon Bonaparte seized Venice in , they also acquired the Ionian Islands , thus ending the four hundredth year of Venetian rule over the Ionian Islands.
This was the first time Greeks had governed themselves since the fall of Trebizond in Among those who held office in the islands was John Capodistria , destined to become independent Greece's first head of state.
By the end of the Napoleonic Wars in , Greece had re-emerged from its centuries of isolation. British and French writers and artists began to visit the country, and wealthy Europeans began to collect Greek antiquities. These " philhellenes " were to play an important role in mobilizing support for Greek independence. Greeks in various places of the Greek peninsula would at times rise up against Ottoman rule, mainly while taking advantage of wars the Ottoman Empire would engage in.
Those uprisings were of mixed scale and impact. They put Vardounia and their lands into Venetian possession, for which Epifani then acted as governor.