Biology Terms Ch 3Organic molecules that always eamples carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and that in many instances contain nothing but carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. A steroid molecule that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells and that acts as a precursor for many other steroids, among them the hormones testosterone cholesterol testosterone and estradiol are examples of estrogen. The primary information-bearing molecule of life, composed of two chains of nucleotides linked proviron y oximetolona in the form of a double helix; they are put together in accordance with the information encoded in it. A molecule, found in many lipids, composed of a hydrocarbon chain bonded anx a carboxyl group. A group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon-based molecule; usually are transferred as a unit among carbon-based molecules and often confer an electrical charge or polarity on the molecules they are part estraeiol.
Biology Terms Ch 3 Flashcards | Quizlet
Organic molecules that always contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and that in many instances contain nothing but carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. A steroid molecule that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells and that acts as a precursor for many other steroids, among them the hormones testosterone and estrogen. The primary information-bearing molecule of life, composed of two chains of nucleotides linked together in the form of a double helix; they are put together in accordance with the information encoded in it.
A molecule, found in many lipids, composed of a hydrocarbon chain bonded to a carboxyl group. A group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon-based molecule; usually are transferred as a unit among carbon-based molecules and often confer an electrical charge or polarity on the molecules they are part of. A molecule that combines protein and carbohydrate. They play important roles as cell receptors ans some types of hormones, among other functions.
A compound made of hydrogen and carbon; nonpolar covalent molecules and therefore not easily dissolved in water. A member of a class of biological molecules whose defining characteristic is their relative insolubility in water. Examples include triglycerides, cholesterol, steroids, and phospholipids. A molecule composed of both lipid and protein. They transport fat molecules through the bloodstream to all parts of the body.
A small molecule that can be combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a larger polymer. A building block, or monomer, of carbohydrates; combine to form complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides. A fatty acid with one double bond between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain. The building block of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, consisting of a phosphate group, as sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
A dietary lipid that is liquid at room temperature eg. A branch of chemistry devoted to the study of molecules that have carbon as their central element. A phosphorous atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms. A charged lipid molecule composed of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phosphate group.
Its phosphate group is hydrophilic, while its fatty acid chains are hydrophobic look like buoys with chains in the air. A major constituent of cell membranes. A large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits, called monomers. A series of amino acids linked in linear fashion; fold up to become proteins. Examples include starch, glycogen, and chitin. A fatty acid with two or more double bonds between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein. A large polymer of amino acids, composed of one or more polypeptide chains. These come in many forms, including enzymes, structural proteins, and hormones. The way in which two or more polypeptide chains come together to form a protein. A nucleic acid that is active in the synthesis of proteins and that forms part of the structure of ribosomes.
A fatty acid with no double bonds between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain. The smallest and simplest form of carbohydrates, which serve as energy-yielding molecules and as the building blocks, or monomers, of complex carbohydrates.
In nutrition, on of the three principal classes of carbohydrates They can either be monosaccharides eg. A member of the class of lipid molecules that have four carbon rings as a central element in their structure. They differ from one another in accordance with the varying side chains that can be attached to these rings.
Cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen are steroid molecules. The large-scale twists and turns in a protein conformation. A lipid molecule formed from three fatty acids bonded to glycerol. A pipid composed of a single fatty acid linked to a long-chain alcohol. Carbon is able to serve as life's central element because it: When you eat starch such as spaghetti, and enzyme in your mouth breads it down to maltose. Eventually, the maltose enters your small intestine, where it is broken down to glucose, which you can absorb into your bloodstream.
What are some differences between saturated and unsaturated fats? Saturated fats are more likely to be solid at room temperature; unsaturated fats are more likely to be liquid; b. Saturated fats have fatty acids that pack closely together, owing to their straight-line construction. Unsaturated fats have fatty acids arranged at varying angles to one another, because of their double bonds; c.
Saturated fats are composed of fatty acids that have no double bonds in their chemical structure. Unsaturated fats are composed of fatty acids that have one or more double bonds in their chemical structure. The myoglobin protein, which carries oxygen in muscle cells, has only the first three levels of protein structure. In other words, it lacks a quaternary level. From this you can conclude that myoglobin: You received your genetic information form your parents in the form of DNA.
This DNA carried the instructions for making: John is lactose intolerant. The -ose ending indicates that John cannot digest a certain: Why is it accurate to look at life as "carbon based," and what quality gives carbon this special role? It has this status because of its chemical bonding abilities: It has four outer or "valence" electrons, meaning it achieves maximum chemical stability by linking with four more electrons.
This bonding capacity means it is able to form strong bonds with many other elements, which is important in creating the kind of complex molecules that are conducive to life. Both low-density lipoproteins LDLs and high-density lipoproteins HDLs are involved with carrying fats through the bloodstream.
If your LDL count is unusually high, should you be concerned? What if your HDL count is high? Why are they different? LDL is associated with deposition of cholesterol in the arteries, so you should be concerned about high levels. HDL is associated with carrying cholesterol to the liver, away from the coronary arteries where it does damage, so if your HDL count is high, that is positive.
What are steroids, as that term is defined in biochemistry? What are steroids in the popular sense of the term? Steroids are a class of lipid molecules that have four carbon rings as a central element in their structure. Under this definition, both cholesterol and estrogen are steroids. In everyday speech, "steroids" refers to a subset of the steroid molecules--those that serve to enhance the ability of muscle to grow stronger.
Testosterone is a steroid in this sense, while cholesterol and estrogen are not. List as many functions of proteins as possible.
Why are proteins able to do so many different types of jobs? Proteins can take on the roles of enzymes, hormones, transport proteins, structural proteins, contractile proteins, storage proteins, and communication proteins. Proteins can do many different kinds of jobs because they take on so many different shapes. Each shape allows the protein to do a different job.
Why is it accurate to think of DNA as an information-bearing molecule? DNA contains or "encodes" the information for producing proteins. For a protein to be produced, the instructions for the order of its amino acids must be obtained from a length of DNA.