Ergogenic use of anabolic steroidsSince their discovery, anabolic steroids AAS have been widely used as performance-enhancing drugs to improve performance in sportsto improve one's physical appearance, as self-medication to recover from injury, and as an anti-aging aid. Use of anabolic steroids for purposes other ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids treating medical conditions is controversial and, in dirty bulking fast food cases, illegal. Major sports organizations have moved to ban the use of anabolic steroids. There is a wide range of health concerns for users. Legislation in many countries restricts and criminalizes AAS possession and trade.
Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids - Wikipedia
Since their discovery, anabolic steroids AAS have been widely used as performance-enhancing drugs to improve performance in sports , to improve one's physical appearance, as self-medication to recover from injury, and as an anti-aging aid.
Use of anabolic steroids for purposes other than treating medical conditions is controversial and, in some cases, illegal. Major sports organizations have moved to ban the use of anabolic steroids. There is a wide range of health concerns for users. Legislation in many countries restricts and criminalizes AAS possession and trade. Performance-enhancing substances have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine by societies around the world, with the aim of promoting vitality and strength.
Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century, while its effects on strength were still being studied. Testosterone, the most active anabolic-androgenic steroid produced by Leydig cells in the testes, was first isolated in and chemically synthesized later in the same year. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone quickly followed.
By the end of the following decade, both testosterone and its derivatives were applied with varying degrees of success for a number of medical conditions. It was not until the s, however, that athletes began to discover that anabolic steroids could increase their muscle mass. According to sports physician John Ziegler , the first confirmed use of an anabolic steroid in an international athletic competition was at the weightlifting championships in Vienna in , when the Russians weightlifters used testosterone.
Throughout the s and s, the use of anabolic steroids was confined largely to the professional levels of sport. In the Eastern bloc , programs of training went as far as forcing some athletes to take anabolic steroids. These doctors did acknowledge the usefulness of anabolic steroids for debilitated patients.
The package insert for Dianabol , a common anabolic steroid used at the time, stated, "Anabolic steroids do not enhance athletic ability. At the end of the s, Science published a study on the effects of Dianabol on athletes. This open label study, conducted by J. O'Shea and colleagues at Oregon State University , confirmed the muscle building effects of anabolic steroids on athletes that followed a high protein diet.
At the beginning of the s, sporting organizations, including the IOC and NCAA , declared the use of anabolic steroids unethical, but with no effective means of testing athletes, the issue remained academic. It is difficult to determine what percent of the population have used anabolic steroids due to the fact that most studies are based on self-reporting. Studies in the United States have shown anabolic steroid users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual [ citation needed ] men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes.
They cite using the drugs for cosmetic purposes. A study found that 6. Anabolic steroid users tend to be disillusioned by the portrayal of anabolic steroids as deadly in the media and in politics. Anabolic steroids have been used by athletes in many professional sports, including cricket , track and field , weightlifting , bodybuilding , shot put , cycling , baseball , wrestling , mixed martial arts , boxing , and football. Such use is prohibited by many of the professional and amateur associations that organize these sports.
Anabolic steroid use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U. In , NFL football player Lyle Alzado died from brain cancer, which he said was caused by his steroid use. However, Alzado also stated that he felt addicted to steroids and that he had become increasingly violent. Arnold Schwarzenegger admitted to using anabolic steroids for many years during his bodybuilding career, although steroids were legal in the US during the time he used them.
Some have assumed this was because of his use of anabolic steroids. Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting anabolic steroids in sports, including Denmark,  France,  the Netherlands,  and Sweden. The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country. Those guilty of buying or selling anabolic steroids in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. Importing or exporting anabolic steroids also carry similar penalties. The United States first considered classifying anabolic steroids as a controlled substance in the late s after a controversy over Ben Johnson's victory at the Summer Olympics in Seoul.
These organizations argued that use of these drugs does not lead to the physical or psychological dependence required for such scheduling under the Controlled Substance Act. By the early s, after non-medical use of anabolic steroids was criminalized in the U. Some brand names included Ciba, Searle, and Syntex. In the Controlled Substances Act, anabolic steroids are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth.
The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, all anabolic steroids are illegal, anabolic steroids are classified as class C drugs for their abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.
In , a study published in the Lancet suggested that anabolic steroids are less dangerous than most other illegal substances, and some legal ones. In countries where anabolic steroids are illegal or controlled, the majority of steroids are obtained illegally through black market trade.
In September , the DEA completed an month international investigation of illicit anabolic steroid use in which arrests were made. The investigation targeted more than 25 Chinese companies which produced raw materials for producing steroids and human growth hormone. The companies exported raw products to Mexico, where the consumer products were packaged. The investigation, dubbed "Operation Gear Grinder," was the largest anabolic steroid operation in the United States, and involved China, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Germany, and Thailand, among other countries.
The DEA also intercepted thousands of e-mails in the course of the investigation. The DEA has stated that the e-mails intercepted were compiled into a massive database of names which could lead to months or years of future arrests of steroid users.
Anabolic steroids are produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small homemade laboratories. In the s, most U. However, in many other regions, particularly Eastern Europe, they are still mass-produced. Anabolic steroids are still in wide use for veterinary purposes, and often contain the same components as those prepared for humans, but without the same quality control.
Dealers are able to obtain the steroids from a number of sources. Illegal anabolic steroids are sometimes sold at gyms, competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Results from four national surveys".
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Australian Institute of Criminology. Faculty of Business, Queensland University of Technology. Victoria Australia Department of Human Services. National Institute on Drug Abuse.
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